HerculaneuminPictures

 

 

 




Herculaneum VII.16. Side doorway into Basilica Noniana, also known as Galleria Balbi.

Date of excavation 1960-62.

 

Guidobaldi wrote that at the extreme north of Cardo III, opposite the rear entrance of the Seat of the Augustale, was a public building which it has been perhaps possible to identify as the civic basilica, constructed in the Augustan age by Senator M. Nonio Balbo and recorded in a wax tablet of 61 AD, as Basilica Noniana.

The building had been explored by tunnels in the Bourbon age and drawn by Bardet and Bellicard, it was shown as a large rectangular room with side walls marked with a double order of semi-columns in opera vittata covered with white fluted stucco and surmounted by Ionic capitals in the lower order and Corinthian in the upper order.

Then at the beginning of the 1960’s the eastern wall had been brought out into the open. In this wall was the side entrance onto Cardo III Superiore, and a small service room, probably used as a waiting room to access the south end of the Basilica. Found in this Basilica were the many statues of M. Nonio Balbo and his family, now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

See Guidobaldi, M.P, 2009: Ercolano, guida agli scavi. Naples, Electa Napoli, (p.116).

 

VII.16 Herculaneum, September 2016. Head of an amazon, from Basilica Noniana, now in Herculaneum Deposits.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
Found inside the building during the winter of 2006, whilst moving back the face of the western escarpment, was the marble head of an Amazon, which still preserved the remains of reddish-brown hair and eyes, the latter painted accurately.
See Guidobaldi, M.P, 2009: Ercolano, guida agli scavi. Naples, Electa Napoli, (p.115-6).
See Pesando, F. and Guidobaldi, M.P. (2006). Pompei, Oplontis, Ercolano, Stabiae. Editori Laterza, (p.373-4)

VII.16 Herculaneum, September 2016. Head of an amazon, from Basilica Noniana, now in Herculaneum Deposits.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Found inside the building during the winter of 2006, whilst moving back the face of the western escarpment, was the marble head of an Amazon, which still preserved the remains of reddish-brown hair and eyes, the latter painted accurately.

See Guidobaldi, M.P, 2009: Ercolano, guida agli scavi. Naples, Electa Napoli, (p.115-6).

See Pesando, F. and Guidobaldi, M.P. (2006). Pompei, Oplontis, Ercolano, Stabiae. Editori Laterza, (p.373-4).

 

Ins. VII, Herculaneum, September 2015. Side doorway into Basilica Noniana on west side of Cardo III. Only the eastern perimeter wall has so far been brought to light together with two side doorways.

VII.16 Herculaneum, September 2015. Side doorway into Basilica Noniana on west side of Cardo III.

Only the eastern perimeter wall has so far been brought to light together with two side doorways.

According to Cooley,

“He was a generous benefactor to Herculaneum, and in return received at least a dozen statues during his lifetime, as well as outstanding public honours after his death. The Basilica Noniana which he gave to the town and which included a statue gallery of his family, continued to be named after him, appearing on a wax tablet of AD 61. Until recently there has been confusion over his statue types.

Two portrait types of Nonius Balbus, one depicting a youth and the other a mature man, have tended to be labelled as the proconsul himself and his son, but recent detective work in the archives and on site now shows clearly that all the known portraits are of a single individual, the proconsul, but that unusually he was represented in both youthful and mature styles.”

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, (p.186-191, F94-105)

According to Kraus,

“It is not known when Balbus, a native of Nuceria, decided to live in Herculaneum, nor why.

However, he must have put down roots there before the middle of the first century A.D, if the dating of the statue of his father is correct, and if a statue of a maiden does indeed portray his daughter.

The fact that the city erected statues of members of his family in public places is ample evidence of his services to his adopted city and to the esteem he enjoyed there.

We know of no other individual in Herculaneum nor in Pompeii who went further in an administrative career.

Marcus Nonius Balbus was praetor and then proconsul of Crete and Cyrenaica, and so had first-hand acquaintance not only with the capital but also with distant provinces of the far-flung Empire, where inscriptions have survived in which the grateful communities saluted him as their benefactor.

Herculaneum too, had much to thank him for, as is clear in the unusual decree in which the city council paid homage to him after his death.”

See Kraus T. and von Matt L., 1975. Pompeii and Herculaneum: Living cities of the dead. New York: Abrams, (p.122)

 

Herculaneum, September 2015. Excavation tunnel.

VII.16 Herculaneum, September 2015. Excavation tunnel.

 

VII.16 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking west into excavation tunnel.
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

VII.16 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking west into excavation tunnel.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. VII, Herculaneum, September 2015. North-west corner of site.

VII.16 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking west in north-west corner of site.

 

Ins. VII, Herculaneum, September 2015. North-west corner of site.

VII.16 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking west in north-west corner of site.

 

Ins. VII, Herculaneum, September 2015. Excavations still under way in north-west corner of site.

VII.16 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking west in north-west corner of site.

 

Statues which may have come from the Basilica

 

Many of the statue said to be from this Basilica may in fact have come from the theatre or vice-versa.

According to Kraus,

“Just which statues adorned the Basilica is difficult to say, since in so many cases the findings were simply lumped together with those from the Theatre”.

Likewise unknown is the precise disposition of the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Nonius Balbus, the most respected and influential citizen of Herculaneum, and the full length figures of his family”.

See Kraus T. and von Matt L., 1975. Pompeii and Herculaneum: Living cities of the dead. New York: Abrams, (p.120).

 

VII.16 Herculaneum. May 2010. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6167.

VII.16 Herculaneum. May 2010. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6167.

This statue was associated with cil x, 1428.

 

M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo

pr(aetori) proco(n)s(uli)

d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1428]

 

VII.16 Herculaneum. May 2010. Equestrian statue of the younger M. Nonius Balbus.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6104.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

VII.16 Herculaneum. May 2010. Equestrian statue of the younger M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6104.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

VII.16 Herculaneum. May 2010. Equestrian statue of the elder M. Nonius Balbus.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6211.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

VII.16 Herculaneum. May 2010. Equestrian statue of the elder M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6211.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Herculaneum. 1978. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus, now in the Naples Museum. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J78f0441
According to Wallace-Hadrill, this statue is often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact was from outside the theatre.
See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192)

Herculaneum. 1978. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus,

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6211.

This statue is often identified as the father of M. Nonius Balbus.

The two statues on horseback may be of the same M. Nonius Balbus, but portraying different stages in his life, see Cooley, above, writing below first photo –

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, (p.186-191, F94-105)

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J78f0441

According to Wallace-Hadrill, this statue is often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact was from outside the theatre.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

 

Herculaneum. 1968. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus, now in the Naples Museum. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J68f0839
According to Deiss, “On their handsome marble horses, the Proconsul and his son are dressed identically in thigh-long tunics, soft riding shoes, breastplates, swords in scabbards, cloaks thrown over the left shoulders and left arms. The left hands hold the reins. On the third finger of each left hand is a large signet ring. The right hands are raised aloft in gestures of imperial command. The Proconsul’s hairline is receding. The son’s abundant hair is cut short and combed forward in the Roman fashion. The Proconsul’s face conveys all the haughty authority of a high Roman official who is an overseas administrator. The son’s face conveys uncertainty, distase for an assumed role, and resignation. The Proconsul’s tight lips are curt with self-assurance and executive drive. The son frowns, and the full lips almost tremble with petulance. If the sculpture has told the truth, here indeed was a son in severe conflict with the father or other members of the family.”
See Deiss, J.J. (1968). Herculaneum, a city returns to the sun. UK, The History Book Club, (p.143-4).
According to Wallace-Hadrill, these statues are often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact were from outside the theatre.
See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

Herculaneum. 1968. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus, perhaps the father, now in the Naples Museum.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f0839

 

According to Deiss, “On their handsome marble horses, the Proconsul and his son are dressed identically in thigh-long tunics, soft riding shoes, breastplates, swords in scabbards, cloaks thrown over the left shoulders and left arms. The left hands hold the reins. On the third finger of each left hand is a large signet ring. The right hands are raised aloft in gestures of imperial command. The Proconsul’s hairline is receding. The son’s abundant hair is cut short and combed forward in the Roman fashion. The Proconsul’s face conveys all the haughty authority of a high Roman official who is an overseas administrator. The son’s face conveys uncertainty, distaste for an assumed role, and resignation. The Proconsul’s tight lips are curt with self-assurance and executive drive. The son frowns, and the full lips almost tremble with petulance. If the sculpture has told the truth, here indeed was a son in severe conflict with the father or other members of the family.”

See Deiss, J.J. (1968). Herculaneum, a city returns to the sun. UK, The History Book Club, (p.143-4).

 

According to Wallace-Hadrill, these statues are often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact were from outside the theatre.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

 

According to Kraus,

“Just which statues adorned the Basilica is difficult to say, since in so many cases the findings were simply lumped together with those from the Theatre”.

Likewise unknown is the precise disposition of the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Nonius Balbus, the most respected and influential citizen of Herculaneum, and the full length figures of his family”.

See Kraus T. and von Matt L., 1975. Pompeii and Herculaneum: Living cities of the dead. New York: Abrams, (p.120).

 

Herculaneum. 1978. Statue of Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J78f0437
According to Kraus, “The head of Balbus is a modern copy made by the sculptor Angelo Brunelli (1740-1806) after the original was destroyed in 1799 by a cannonball fired by the revolutionaries attacking the royal villa and museum in Portici.”
See Kraus T. and von Matt L., 1975. Pompeii and Herculaneum: Living cities of the dead. New York: Abrams, (p.125).
According to Wallace-Hadrill, Marcus Nonius Balbus was one of the leading citizens and benefactors of Herculaneum. He became a praetor in Rome, and the governor (proconsul) of Crete and Cyrene. In the Basilica Noniana, his portrait in the toga of a citizen, is accompanied by that of his father, with the same name, his mother Viciria, probably his wife Volasennia, and possibly his daughters. The impression of his face was left in the tufo at the Theatre, from his statue in heroic nudity. We see statues of him together with his father, both on horseback from a public square outside the Theatre, with an inscription recalling his benefactions to the town. Finally, his statue can be found on the terrace by the Suburban Baths, in the armour of a Roman commander.
See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.130-133 and p. 192).

Herculaneum. 1978. Statue of Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J78f0437

According to Kraus, “The head of Balbus is a modern copy made by the sculptor Angelo Brunelli (1740-1806) after the original was destroyed in 1799 by a cannonball fired by the revolutionaries attacking the royal villa and museum in Portici.”

See Kraus T. and von Matt L., 1975. Pompeii and Herculaneum: Living cities of the dead. New York: Abrams, (p.125).

According to Wallace-Hadrill, Marcus Nonius Balbus was one of the leading citizens and benefactors of Herculaneum.

He became a praetor in Rome, and the governor (proconsul) of Crete and Cyrene.

In the Basilica Noniana, his portrait in the toga of a citizen, is accompanied by that of his father, with the same name, his mother Viciria, probably his wife Volasennia, and possibly his daughters. The impression of his face was left in the tufo at the Theatre, from his statue in heroic nudity.

We see statues of him together with his father, both on horseback from a public square outside the Theatre, with an inscription recalling his benefactions to the town.

Finally, his statue can be found on the terrace by the Suburban Baths, in the armour of a Roman commander.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.130-133 and p. 192).

 

Herculaneum, 1968. Statue of Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J68f1413
According to Wallace-Hadrill, this statue is often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact was from outside the theatre.
See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192)

Herculaneum, 1968. Statue of Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum. 

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1413

According to Wallace-Hadrill, this statue is often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact was from outside the theatre.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

 

Ins. VII, Herculaneum, 1975. Marble statue of Viciria, mother of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica.
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J75f0575
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum, inventory number 6168.
According to Cooley the following inscription was found in the Basilica Noniana with the female statue –
“To Viciria Archais, daughter of Aulus, mother of Balbus, by decree of the town councillors.” (CIL X 1440)
See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, (p.190, F101).

VII, Herculaneum, 1975. Marble statue of Viciria, mother of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J75f0575

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum, inventory number 6168.

According to Cooley the following inscription was found in the Basilica Noniana with the female statue –

“To Viciria Archais, daughter of Aulus, mother of Balbus, by decree of the town councillors.” (CIL X 1440)

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, (p.190, F101). 

 

Ins. VII, Herculaneum, 1975. Detail from statue of Viciria, mother of Nonius Balbus. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J75f0574

VII, Herculaneum, 1975. Detail from statue of Viciria, mother of Nonius Balbus.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J75f0574

 

Ins. VII, Herculaneum, 1975. Marble statue of Viciria, mother of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica.
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f1415
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6168.

VII, Herculaneum, 1975. Marble statue of Viciria, mother of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1415

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6168.

 

VII, Herculaneum. Daughter of M. Nonius Balbus.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6248.

VII, Herculaneum. Daughter of M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6248.

 

Ins. VII, Herculaneum, 1975. Perhaps one of the daughters of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J75f0573
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6248.

VII, Herculaneum, 1975. Perhaps one of the daughters of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J75f0573

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6248.

 

006244 Herculaneum Daughter of Balbus

VII, Herculaneum, 1976. Perhaps one of the daughters of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6244.

 

006244 Sybel fig 207 p254

1888. Statue from Herculaneum, now in Dresden, according to Sybel.

Sybel L. Von, 1888. Weltgeschichte der Kunst bis zur Erbauung der Sophienkirche, p. 254, fig. 207.

 

Herculaneum Theatre Female statue Dresden Museum inv Hm 327 640

Herculaneum Theatre. Female statue.

Now in Dresden Museum inventory number Hm 327.

 

Old photo titled “From the statue found in the theatre of Herculaneum. Now in the Museo Nazionale Naples. The Sister of M. Nonius Balbus”, ence

Old photo titled “From the statue found in the theatre of Herculaneum. Now in the Museo Nazionale Naples. The Sister of M. Nonius Balbus”,

 

 

VII, Herculaneum, 1976. Perhaps M. Nonius Balbus. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6246.
This statue is associated with athe inscription cil x 1439.
M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo
Patri
d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1439]

VII, Herculaneum, 1976. Perhaps M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6246.

This statue is associated with athe inscription cil x 1439.

M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo

Patri

d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1439]

 

Plaque with inscription associated with statue 6246.
M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo
patrì
d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)      [CIL X 1439]
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5871.

Plaque with inscription associated with statue 6246.

M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo
patrì
d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)      [CIL X 1439]

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5871.