HerculaneuminPictures

 

 

 




Herculaneum II.1. Access bridge, and Casa di Aristide or House of Aristides.

 

According to Guidobaldi and Esposito, in the early 1700’s, the private excavations by the Prince d’Elbeuf started by chance at the site of the Theatre.

 

In 1738, under King Charles of Bourbon, the official exploration of the city began, using underground tunnels. The system used was one similar to mining techniques in which vertical shafts were dug until the level of the ancient structures were reached. The workers then descended by ropes, a winch was used to lower the ropes, and this was also used to raise objects back to the surface. Then the diggers excavated horizontal tunnels, without a proper plan. When rich finds were encountered the area around the tunnels was expanded, those already explored were then back-filled with the debris from the excavation of the new passages.

In 1780 the excavations at Herculaneum were discontinued, in favour of those at Pompeii.

 

In 1828, under the reign of Francis I of Bourbon, the first open-air excavations were begun at Herculaneum. These continued, on and off, until 1875.

The area of the city that had been brought to light consisted of a short stretch of the road now known as Cardo III, Insulae II and VII on its west, and Insulae III and part of VI, on its east.

(According to Pesando and Guidobaldi, the small portion of the isolated block of Insula II to come to light coincided entirely with the first open air excavations carried out between 1828 and 1855.

See Pesando, F. and Guidobaldi, M.P. (2006). Pompei, Oplontis, Ercolano, Stabiae. Editori Laterza, (p.313)).

 

Maiuri’s new excavations began in April 1927 and were officially inaugurated on May 16 by the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III.

This enormous undertaking continued until 1960, but by 1942 almost the entire area of the present archaeological site had already been excavated, restored in situ and opened to the public.

 

Between 1960 and 1969, further work was carried out on the northern part of Insula VI and Decumanus Maximus, unearthing the House of Tuscan Colonnade, the College of the Augustales, and the atrium sector of the House of the Black Salon, of which Maiuri had excavated only the rear section, which was centred on the peristyle.

 

Since the 1980’s the ancient shoreline, coinciding with the southern side of the archaeological site, has been explored leading to the discovery of the boat-houses, the skeletons of the victims, the large wooden boat and the collapsed portico (pronaos) of the Temple of Venus (Sacellum B). The resin casts of the skeletons found in

the boat-houses, finally placed in situ at the end of 2011, now give visitors a vivid image of the last, painful moments of their lives.

 

During 1996-8, open-air excavations, the so-called Scavi Nuovi, were carried out in the area of the Villa of Papyri and the so-called Northwest Insula.

2002-4 environmental renovations were carried out here, and in 2007-8 additional excavations and partial conservation work was carried out, which clarified the plan of the ancient city, comprising the Villa of the Papyri, the thermal bathhouse of the Northwest Insula, and the imposing residential complex of Insula I, which has become known as the House of the Dionysian Reliefs based upon its decoration.

See Guidobaldi, M.P. and Esposito, D. (2013). Herculaneum: Art of the Buried City. U.S.A, Abbeville Press, (p.21-26) 

 

Herculaneum. Entrance footbridge, at south-west side of entrance roadway. 
This bridge used to lead onto the House of the Albergo (Ins.III.1), whereas now it leads to the lower end of Cardo III Inferiore.

Herculaneum. Entrance footbridge, at south-west side of entrance roadway.

This bridge used to lead onto the House of the Albergo (Ins.III.1), whereas now it leads to the lower end of Cardo III Inferiore.

 

Herculaneum, June 2011. Looking north across access bridge towards roadway known as Cardo III Inferiore.
Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

Herculaneum, June 2011. Looking north across access bridge towards roadway known as Cardo III Inferiore.

Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north across access bridge towards roadway known as Cardo III.

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north across access bridge towards roadway known as Cardo III Inferiore.

Ins. II can be seen on the left.

 

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north across access bridge towards Cardo III.
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north across access bridge towards Cardo III. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north across access bridge towards Cardo III.

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north from access bridge towards Cardo III.

 

Herculaneum, June 2012. Looking south across access bridge, with II.1 Casa di Aristide, on the right.  On the left is III.1 Casa dell’Albergo.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Herculaneum, June 2012. Looking south across access bridge, with II.1 Casa di Aristide, on the right.

On the left is III.1 Casa dell’Albergo.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins II.1. Casa di Aristide or House of Aristides.

 

In January 1828, excavation work started on the Casa d’Argo.

In 1829-1831, the excavation of the Casa d’Argo was completed, then the Casa di Aristide and the Casa del Genio were excavated, and the Casa dello Scheletro was started.

See Maiuri, Amedeo, (2008): Cronache degli scavi di Ercolano, 1927-1961, forward & introduction by Mario Capasso. Italy, Sorrento, Franco Di Mauro Editore, (p.45-53).

 

According to Guidobaldi – “The conventional name of this house derived from a statue recuperated from the Villa of the Papyri, wrongly identified with Aristide and brought to the surface by the Bourbon excavators following the tunnel opening that crossed this house”.

A stairway accessible from the atrium and an external ramp leads to a lower level with service rooms, where in Bourbon times, some skeletons of fugitives were found”.

See Guidobaldi, M.P. (2009). Ercolano, guida agli scavi. Electa Napoli, (p.54).

 

In 1870, Pagano wrote – “Outside of the entrance doorway are the columns that held the roof, with a bench of masonry on the right. The same roof extended towards the left side, forming a covered passageway to go down to the warehouses below, which remain in the lower part of the roadway, and to lead to the level of the sea, which in ancient times reached to the city, but which today has retreated a lot.

Entering the atrium, the impluvium is seen in the middle to collect rainwater, and a cistern mouth in white marble, to draw the water.

On the left there is a small staircase by which you could also descend from the inside of the house into the warehouses below. The other door following on the same side, which has two steps of travertine, gave access to small internal rooms, perhaps for the use of the kitchen and its vicinity, but today they present no interest, being completely without decorations. There then follows another door with three steps leading onto a large terrace.

Facing/in front, also mounting two steps, you pass to the inner rooms of the house, and after a second atrium you have on the left a large reception room, which today is completely free of decorations.

(Note: this next room can be found in II.2, the House of Argus).

Then follows another great room with white mosaic, decorated with beautiful paintings in the two walls which remain. On large blue and red background panels there were three paintings: the first on the right has the view of a fortress, and in the foreground was a Satyr in the act of reasoning with a Nymph. The second on the other wall was completely destroyed. The third also barely discernible, represents the Punishment of Dirce, which is the same subject of the large group in marble existing at the museum, known as Toro Farnese. Between the one picture and the other, we see graceful painted architectural perspectives.

Behind this room, there are others, amongst which there are some which deserve attention, but which are currently re-covered to better preserve them.  

Passing onto the terrace that is on the left, one descends by means of a staircase to a small chapel used for worshipping, which has its altar in the middle, and found here were several bronze idols. Also interesting was the room that is to the right of the chapel, which still retained a part of its ancient vault worked with coloured stucco. The last locality to be observed are the warehouses, which remain in the lower part of the excavation”.

See Pagano, N. (1870). Descrizione degli scavi di Ercolano. (p.26-29)

 

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north-west across access bridge towards Ins. II.

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north-west across access bridge towards Ins. II.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north-west towards Casa di Aristide from access bridge.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north-west towards Casa di Aristide from access bridge.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Windows overlooking beachfront from lower floors of Casa di Aristide. Looking north from access bridge.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015.

Windows overlooking beachfront from lower floors of Casa di Aristide. Looking north-west from access bridge.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013.  Windows that would have overlooked the beachfront, from lower floors of Casa di Aristide. Looking north-west. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.
According to Maiuri, little remains that is intelligible of the original plan of the building as so many underground passages were cut across it by the Bourbons, and because of the restorations made at the time. The atrium, and the rear of the house were constructed on the brow of the hill, all the rest which projected outwards over the lowest and steepest slope of the promontory was supported upon robust vaulted constructions that form a powerful supporting bastion with concrete walls, sometimes three metres thick, faced externally with brick and internally with opus reticulatum.
See Maiuri, Amedeo, (1977). Herculaneum. 7th English ed, of Guide books to the Museums Galleries and Monuments of Italy, No.53 (p.23).

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013. 

Looking north-west towards windows that would have overlooked the beachfront, from lower floors of Casa di Aristide.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

According to Maiuri, little remains that is intelligible of the original plan of the building as so many underground passages were cut across it by the Bourbons, and because of the restorations made at the time.

The atrium, and the rear of the house were constructed on the brow of the hill, all the rest which projected outwards over the lowest and steepest slope of the promontory was supported upon robust vaulted constructions that form a powerful supporting bastion with concrete walls, sometimes three metres thick, faced externally with brick and internally with opus reticulatum.

See Maiuri, Amedeo, (1977). Herculaneum. 7th English ed, of Guide books to the Museums Galleries and Monuments of Italy, No.53 (p.23).

 

II.1 Herculaneum, on right. October 2014. Looking west from access bridge. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

II.1 Herculaneum, on right. October 2014. Looking west from access bridge. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, on right. May 2001. Looking west from access bridge. Photo courtesy of Current Archaeology.

II.1 Herculaneum, on right. May 2001. Looking west from access bridge. Photo courtesy of Current Archaeology.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, June 2017. Looking north. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
The ramp that would have led to the beach can be seen, centre right.

II.1 Herculaneum, June 2017. Looking north. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

The ramp that would have led to the beach can be seen, centre right.

 

II.1 Herculaneum. Looking north across upper floor of Casa di Aristide, general view of Herculaneum taken from above the area of the beachfront. Photo used with the permission of the Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford. File name instarchbx116im007 Resource ID 42245. 
See photo on University of Oxford HEIR database

II.1 Herculaneum.

Looking north across upper floor of Casa di Aristide, general view of Herculaneum taken from above the area of the beachfront.

Photo used with the permission of the Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford.

File name instarchbx116im007 Resource ID 42245.

See photo on University of Oxford HEIR database

 

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking south along ramp originally leading down to lower levels and/or beachfront, on east side of II.1 Casa di Aristide.

Herculaneum, September 2015.

Looking south along ramp originally leading down to lower levels and/or beachfront, on east side of II.1 Casa di Aristide.

See Guidobaldi, M.P, 2009: Ercolano, guida agli scavi. Naples, Electa Napoli, (p.54).

 

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking south along ramp, on east side of Casa di Aristide.

Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking south along ramp, on east side of Casa di Aristide.

 

II.1 Herculaneum,1842, drawing by Zahn. Plan showing the houses discovered between 1828 until 1838, (described as) at the side of the sea, not far from the theatre. 
This consists of II.1 lower floor, separately on left, II.1 on left, II.2 in centre, and II.3 on right.
On the lower part of the roadway (Cardo III) is III.1, III.2, and III.3, on right.
See Zahn, W., 1842. Die schönsten Ornamente und merkwürdigsten Gemälde aus Pompeji, Herkulanum und Stabiae: II. Berlin: Reimer. (63)

II.1 Herculaneum,1842, drawing by Zahn.

Plan showing the houses discovered between 1828 until 1838, (described as) at the side of the sea, not far from the theatre.

This consists of II.1 lower floor, with shaded area representing the lower floor of II.2 separately on left, - II.1 on left, II.2 in centre, and II.3 on right.

On the lower part of the roadway (Cardo III) are III.1, III.2, and III.3, on right.

See Zahn, W., 1842. Die schönsten Ornamente und merkwürdigsten Gemälde aus Pompeji, Herkulanum und Stabiae: II. Berlin: Reimer. (63)

 

II.2 Herculaneum,1842, drawing by Zahn.

Street view of the exterior façade of the houses discovered between 1828 until 1838, (described as by the side of the sea, not far from the theatre).

II.1 is on the left in the top drawing, with terrace overlooking the sea, and doorway shaded by a roof held up by four columns;

II.2 is on the left of the middle drawing, with an upper floor overlooking the roadway and a doorway shaded by a roof supported by four pilasters;

On the right is II.3, with its doorway shaded by a roof supported by two columns.

The lowest drawing is a complete vista on the west side of Cardo III, from II.1 up until II.3.

See Zahn, W., 1842. Die schönsten Ornamente und merkwürdigsten Gemälde aus Pompeji, Herkulanum und Stabiae: II. Berlin: Reimer. (64).

“During the excavation there were still upper floors, whereas now there are only lower floors (other than some fragments of the upper) but one can see in several places the position of the beams of the planks for the upper floors, as well as the ceilings of the lower floors with their tiles. These Herculaneum wooden constructions, all charred, have been preserved, while those at Pompeii are destroyed. Wooden doors and other wooden structures, have also been preserved in charcoal, so that the shapes are perfectly recognisable. The walls and columns are made of irregular stones, partly in brick and volcanic stones, partly in Opus reticulatum, stuccoed, and partly painted”.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Doorway to Casa di Aristide, looking west.
The atrium opened directly onto the roadway, without an entrance corridor, but with a porch outside in the street.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Doorway to Casa di Aristide, looking west.

The atrium opened directly onto the roadway, without an entrance corridor, but with a porch outside in the street.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, October 2014. Looking south-west towards the doorway to Casa di Aristide. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

II.1 Herculaneum, October 2014. Looking south-west towards the doorway to Casa di Aristide.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. North side of atrium, looking towards modern doorway linking to peristyle of Casa d’Argo.  The original opening was made by a Bourbon tunnel.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015.

North side of atrium, looking towards modern doorway linking to peristyle of Casa d’Argo.

The original opening was made by a Bourbon tunnel.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. South side of atrium.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. South side of atrium.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Steps in south-east corner of atrium, leading to service rooms on lower floor, where several skeletons were found in Bourbon times .

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015.

Steps in south-east corner of atrium, leading to service rooms on lower floor, where several skeletons were found in Bourbon times.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013. Leading to service rooms on lower floor.  Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013. Leading to service rooms on lower floor. 

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Steps and corridor on south-west side of atrium.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Steps and corridor on south-west side of atrium.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Rooms on south side of atrium.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Rooms on south side of atrium.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013. Rooms on south side of atrium. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013. Rooms on south side of atrium. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking towards west side of atrium.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking towards west side of atrium.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking across impluvium in atrium towards west side.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking across impluvium in atrium towards west side.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013. Looking west across impluvium in atrium.  Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013. Looking west across impluvium in atrium. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015.  Steps to corridor in north-west corner of atrium.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015.  Steps in north-west corner of atrium.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Rooms on west side of atrium.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Rooms on west side of atrium.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013. Rooms on west side of atrium. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

II.1 Herculaneum, August 2013. Rooms on west side of atrium. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Rooms on west side of atrium.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Rooms on west side of atrium, looking west.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, October 2014. Rooms on west side of atrium, looking north.
The wooden gate covers a break in the east wall belonging to the large salon of the house at II.2. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

II.1 Herculaneum, October 2014. Rooms on west side of atrium, looking north.

The wooden gate covers a break in the east wall belonging to the large salon of the house at II.2.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking south-east across atrium.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking south-east across atrium.

 

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north-east across atrium. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

II.1 Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north-east across atrium. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins.II.1, on left, Herculaneum. 1964. Looking north along Cardo III. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J64f1144

Ins.II.1, on left, Herculaneum. 1964. Looking north along Cardo III. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J64f1144