HerculaneuminPictures

 

 

 




Herculaneum III.14. Casa a Graticcio or House of the Wattle Work (Opus Craticium), linked to shop at III.15.

Excavated between 1928-29.

 

According to Wallace-Hadrill, this was entered by a long passage leading to the garden courtyard and consisted of approximately 5 rooms, with stairs leading up to a 3 (?) room flat.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A., 1994. Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. New Jersey: Princeton U.P. (p.199).

 

According to Maiuri, this house is an admirably preserved example of a dwelling constructed in opus craticium, with the skeleton of the wall in wood, or simply of cane trellising. This Herculaneum abode is the first organic and complete example of an entire edifice constructed in such a way on the ground and first floors. The whole natural skeleton of the house, with the exception of the outer walls and the few remaining parts of a pre-existing structure, is composed of brick pilasters and wooden frames filled with opus incertum cemented with abundant lime-mortar, the whole then being covered by the usual stratum of stucco and painted rough-cast (tectorium).

 

The low wide entrance corridor (the ceiling beams reproduce exactly the original beams found in a carbonized state) lead into a small courtyard instead of the usual atrium, closed all around by a high podium. Over this look out the various rooms, with wide horizontal windows on the ground floor and the narrow vertical one with low sills on the upper floor. One of the ground floor rooms, probably used as a work-room, is linked to the shop that open onto the street at III.15. The upper floor is reached by a staircase which retains several of its original steps. Here is a narrow cubiculum vivaciously painted in red, and another larger room.

See Maiuri, Amedeo, (1977). Herculaneum. 7th English ed, of Guide books to the Museums Galleries and Monuments of Italy, No.53, (p.32).

 

According to Wallace-Hadrill, opus craticium, as described by Vitruvius, is a type of flimsy construction, perhaps like the English “wattle and daub”. Taken by Maiuri to apply to this house, which is however of timber and rubble construction.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2011). Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd., (p.346 and p.262)

 

According to Pesando and Guidobaldi, the entrance corridor, with two small rooms on the right (north side) led to the garden courtyard. These consisted of a small room at the front followed by a larger room in which a bed was found. The rooms on the south side of the entrance corridor on the ground floor perhaps belonged to the shop with entrance at III.15, but it is not certain whether the large room (this has clear evidence of an earlier and more noble accommodation) and the rooms at the rear with basins/tanks full of lime residue, were also linked to the shop.

A wooden staircase in the room on the west side of the courtyard led to the upper apartment, which consisted of two bedrooms and a long corridor which led to the latrine. One bedroom furnished with a window with a metal grill, contained perfectly preserved carbonized furniture (a bed, a small cupboard suspended on the wall, and a small one-legged marble table). In the other bedroom were two beds placed at an angle in a corner and a cupboard-lararium, in which were found bronze statuettes of the domestic shrine, two Lares, Jupiter, MInerva, Aesculapius, Isis-Fortuna, Fortuna, Harpocrates, and a Bacchante.

See Pesando, F. and Guidobaldi, M.P. (2006). Pompei, Oplontis, Ercolano, Stabiae. Editori Laterza, (p.325-6)

 

According to Wallace-Hadrill, one of the wooden cupboards in one of the upper rooms was full of objects. Found on 9th November 1928 was a bronze statuette of Jupiter holding a thunderbolt, ‘Abundantia’ (perhaps the Egyptian Isis). Aesculapius and Diana the Huntress. A week later, on 17th November, a matching pair of Lares, another ‘Abundantia’ with the horn of plenty (more than likely Fortuna then), a Minerva and the Egyptian god Harpocrates, but it is worth noting that plenty of other material was stored in the cupboard, including a bronze weight, several bronze coins, a glass plate, a pottery plate and several glass paste beads. The household gods were good at keeping their eye on valued objects.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2011). Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd., (p.265).

 

According to Camardo and Notomista, a photo taken in the 1960’s shows details of the carbonized wooden cupboard and some of its objects.

See Camardo, D, and Notomista, M, eds. (2017). Ercolano: 1927-1961: L’impresa archeologico di Amedeo Maiuri e l’esperimento della citta museo. Rome, L’Erma di Bretschneider, (p.192, Scheda 7, fig. 6)

 

Ins, IV, on left and Ins, III, on right, Herculaneum. October 2001. Looking south-along Cardo IV Inferiore from near III.11, on right. Photo courtesy of Peter Woods.

Ins, IV, on left and Ins, III, on right, Herculaneum. October 2001.

Looking south-along Cardo IV Inferiore from near III.11, on right.

Photo courtesy of Peter Woods.

 

Ins. III.12 on right, and III.13/14/15 in centre, May 2004. Looking south-west along west side of Cardo IV Inferiore.

III.12 on right, and III.13/14/15 in centre, May 2004. Looking south-west along west side of Cardo IV Inferiore.

 

III 14, Herculaneum, October 2001. Looking south-west along west side of Cardo IV Inferiore. Photo courtesy of Peter Woods.

III 14, Herculaneum, October 2001. Looking south-west along west side of Cardo IV Inferiore.

Photo courtesy of Peter Woods.

 

III 14, Herculaneum, August 2013. Looking towards house under restoration. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

III 14, Herculaneum, August 2013. Looking towards house under restoration.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

III 15, 14, and 13, Herculaneum. October 2012. Looking towards doorways under street portico formed by balcony. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

III 15, 14, and 13, Herculaneum. October 2012. Looking towards doorways under street portico formed by balcony.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. III.15, 14, and 13 (behind right column). May 2010. Entrance doorways, and restored upper balcony.

III.15, 14, and 13 (behind right column). May 2010. Entrance doorways, and restored balcony on upper floor.

 

III 14, Herculaneum, August 2013. Upper floor balcony. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

III 14, Herculaneum, August 2013. Upper floor balcony. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

III 14, Herculaneum, August 2013. Upper floor balcony. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

III 14, Herculaneum, August 2013. Upper floor balcony. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

III 14, Herculaneum, August 2013. Upper floor. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

III 14, Herculaneum, August 2013. Upper floor. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Ins. III 14, Herculaneum, May 2015. Looking south-west towards entrance doorway.

III 14, Herculaneum, May 2015. Looking south-west towards entrance doorway.

 

Ins. III 14, Herculaneum, May 2015. Looking west through entrance doorway towards a small courtyard.

III 14, Herculaneum, May 2015. Looking west through entrance doorway towards a small courtyard.

 

Ins. III.14, centre. May 2010.  Doorway to the House of the Wattle Work (a Graticcio) on west side of Cardo IV Inferiore.

III.14, centre. May 2010.

Doorway to the House of the Wattle Work (a Graticcio) on west side of Cardo IV Inferiore.

 

III 14, Herculaneum. October 2012. Looking west along entrance corridor. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

III 14, Herculaneum. October 2012. Looking west along entrance corridor.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. III.14. May 2010. Entrance corridor, looking west from entrance doorway.

III.14. May 2010. Entrance corridor, looking west from entrance doorway.

 

Ins. III. 14, May 2010. Looking west towards small courtyard. According to Jashemski, this paved courtyard gave light to the various rooms in this dwelling. The courtyard was enclosed with a small low wall to form a basin to collect rain water.
See Jashemski, W. F., 1993. The Gardens of Pompeii, Volume II: Appendices. New York: Caratzas. (p.260)

III. 14, May 2010. Looking west towards small courtyard.

According to Jashemski, this paved courtyard gave light to the various rooms in this dwelling.

The courtyard was enclosed with a small low wall to form a basin to collect rain water.

See Jashemski, W. F., 1993. The Gardens of Pompeii, Volume II: Appendices. New York: Caratzas. (p.260)

 

Ins. III 14, Herculaneum, May 2015. Looking towards small courtyard garden from entrance doorway.

III 14, Herculaneum, May 2015.

Looking towards small courtyard garden from entrance doorway.

 

III.14, Herculaneum, 1957.  Looking east across courtyard/garden.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J57f0444

III.14, Herculaneum, 1957.  Looking east across courtyard/garden.  

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J57f0444