HerculaneuminPictures

 

 




Herculaneum Ins. Or. II.1a. Bakery on north side of Vicolo Meridionale.

Excavated 1934-36.

 

According to Guidobaldi –

“In this insula, it was possible to identify some of the functions of the workshops - numbers 1a and 8 were bakeries”.

See Pesando F., Guidobaldi M., 2006. Pompei, Oplontis, Ercolano, Stabiae. Roma: Laterza, (p.382 of pages 288-407)

 

Maiuri wrote that this was the first of its kind to be found in the area of the city so far disinterred and it must have been installed on the corner of the eastern insula (where several rooms belonging to a preceding house of a better class were converted to this use) during the last years of the city’s life.

Immediately inside, there is the oven, with collapsed vault but with the iron door still closed, and near to it is a leaden tank in which to damp the straw broom used to clean the oven after baking.  In the corner are a large terracotta dolium and a basin made from part of a mill. In the tiny courtyard, there are two mills of the usual type (meta and catillus); these were turned by asses, as is plainly demonstrated by the remains of bones found on the ground around by the bevelled angle of the pilaster (cut away to allow for the circulating of the animal) and by the presence of the stable (stabulum) for the shelter of the beasts of burden. In the wall of the stable there are the two deep sockets for the manger. On the other side of the courtyard, two small doorways lead to two latrines separated by a partition.  This baker of Herculaneum must indeed have prospered, if it was possible to unite the distinguished vaulted rooms with fine tessellated pavements and the remains of good decoration which lie on a slightly higher level, with his Pistrinum

See Maiuri, Amedeo, (1977). Herculaneum. 7th English ed, of Guide books to the Museums Galleries and Monuments of Italy, No.53 (p.56).

 

On page 266 are two pictures, fig. 1 taken in 1936, showing the remains of the oven of the bakery and surrounding structures, and fig. 2, in 1936, showing the rear room or stall/stable with the bones of an animal, probably an ass/donkey, and on a rear wall the outline left in the wall from a wooden structure, interpreted by Maiuri as a manger.

See Camardo, D, and Notomista, M, eds. (2017). Ercolano: 1927-1961. L’impresa archeologico di Amedeo Maiuri e l’esperimento della citta museo. Rome, L’Erma di Bretschneider, (p.265-6, Scheda 44).

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. Plan of bakery with room numbers used by Maiuri and used on our page.
See Maiuri A., 1958. Ercolano I Nuovi Scavi (1927-1958) Vol. 1. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, p. 451, fig. 401.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. Plan of bakery with room numbers used by Maiuri and used on our page.

See Maiuri A., 1958. Ercolano I Nuovi Scavi (1927-1958) Vol. 1. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, p. 451, fig. 401.

 

Vicolo Meridionale, the small roadway dividing Ins. Orientalis II, on left, from Ins. Orientalis I, on right. September 2015. Looking east past Ins. Or. II.1a and II.1b on left. The doorway to the bakery has not yet been photographed.

Vicolo Meridionale, the small roadway dividing Ins. Orientalis II, on left, from Ins. Orientalis I, on right.

September 2015. Looking east past Ins. Or. II.1a and II.1b on left. The doorway to the bakery has not yet been photographed.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Exterior wall in Vicolo Meridionale, looking north at rear of bakery. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Exterior wall in Vicolo Meridionale, looking north at rear of bakery.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Looking south-west from above Ins. Orientalis II. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J57f0425
The Oleanders (pink-flowers) can be seen dividing the two insulae, Ins. Or. I and II, these are the same as the ones in the Vicolo Meridionale, as in the photo below.

Looking south-west from above Ins. Orientalis II. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J57f0425

The Oleanders (pink-flowers) can be seen dividing the two insulae, Ins. Or. I and II, these are the same as the ones in the Vicolo Meridionale, as in the photo below.

 

Vicolo Meridionale, looking west towards Cardo V.1957.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J57f0454

Vicolo Meridionale, looking west towards Cardo V. 1957. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J57f0454

 

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Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Threshold. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Room A – the bakery.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Room A. Oven with collapsed vault in north-east corner of bakery. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Room A. Oven with collapsed vault in north-east corner of bakery.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. 1958.Room A.  Drawing by R. Oliva of oven in north-east corner of bakery. 
On the right is the entrance at Ins. Or. II.1a.
On the left are the steps into room D, which led to rooms E and F.
In front of the oven are the basin (e) and dolia (e’).
See Maiuri A., 1958. Ercolano I Nuovi Scavi (1927-1958) Vol. 1. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, p. 452, fig. 402.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. 1958. Room A. Drawing by R. Oliva of oven in north-east corner of bakery.

On the right is the entrance at Ins. Or. II.1a.

On the left are the steps into room D, which led to rooms E and F.

In front of the oven are the basin (e) and dolia (e’).

See Maiuri A., 1958. Ercolano I Nuovi Scavi (1927-1958) Vol. 1. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, p. 452, fig. 402.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Room A. Oven with basin (e). Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.
In the north wall of the bakery, reached by narrow stairs, was the access to rooms D, E, and F, at one time rather grand and only reached by the long corridor at Ins. Or. II.2.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Room A. Oven with basin (e). Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

In the north wall of the bakery, reached by narrow stairs, was the access to rooms D, E, and F, at one time rather grand and only reached by the long corridor at Ins. Or. II.2.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Near to the oven podium is a basin/tub (e) which would have been for water.
This was made from a millstone. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Near to the oven podium is a basin/tub (e) which would have been for water.

This was made from a millstone. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Oven podium. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Oven podium. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

A close up of a large rock

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Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Detail of top of oven. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail of oven. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail of top of oven. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

A close up of a rock

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Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Detail of oven. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail from top of oven. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail from top of oven. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail from top of oven. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail from top of oven. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. 1958. Room A, mills (m’) and (m).
See Maiuri A., 1958. Ercolano I Nuovi Scavi (1927-1958) Vol. 1. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, p. 452, fig. 403.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. 1958. Room A, mills (m’) and (m).

See Maiuri A., 1958. Ercolano I Nuovi Scavi (1927-1958) Vol. 1. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, p. 452, fig. 403.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Room A, mill (m’) on west side of bakery.
There are two mills of the usual type in the bakery, (meta and catillus).
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Room A, mill (m’) on west side of bakery.

There are two mills of the usual type in the bakery, (meta and catillus).

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Room A, mill (m) on east side of bakery.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Room A, mill (m) on east side of bakery.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Rooms C and C1, Latrines

On the other side of the bakery, two small doorways lead to two latrines separated by a partition. 

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Latrine (c). Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Latrine (c). Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Latrine (c) with entrance door on left. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Latrine (c) with entrance door on left. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Latrine (c’) with entrance door on right. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Latrine (c’) with entrance door on right. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Room B, Stables, and room b, vestibule.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room b, north wall of vestibule. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room b, north wall of vestibule.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, north wall of stables. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, north wall of stables. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, west end of north wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, west end of north wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, north wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, north wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, north wall. 
The outline left in the rear wall from a wooden structure, interpreted by Maiuri as a manger. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, north wall.

The outline left in the rear wall from a wooden structure, interpreted by Maiuri as a manger.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, east end of north wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room B, east end of north wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Room D

The barrel vault had a simple white painted stucco, and the flooring was in fine black tesserae. The decoration, of which remains only a small part, had a black zoccolo divided by white bands with vases, birds and acanthus plants: the background of the walls was a chrome-yellow colour.

This elegant room was divided in half by the proprietor with a rough wall to make a warehouse for use as a storeroom for cereal.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room D, detail from east wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room D, detail from east wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room D, detail from south wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room D, detail from south wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Three frescoes found in the Scavi di Portici, 1752.
Three birds and a herm (bottom left). Now in Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 8763.
Three birds and a vase (bottom right). Now in Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 8758.
See Le Antichità di Ercolano esposte Tomo 2, Le Pitture Antiche di Ercolano 2, 1760, Tav. 49, 265.

Three frescoes found in the Scavi di Portici, 1752.

Garlands, goats and garden scene (top). Now in Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 9680.

Three birds and a herm (bottom left). Now in Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 8763.

Three birds and a vase (bottom right). Now in Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 8758.

See Le Antichità di Ercolano esposte Tomo 2, Le Pitture Antiche di Ercolano 2, 1760, Tav. 49, 265.

 

Garlands, goats and garden scene (top). Now in Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 9680.

Garlands, goats and garden scene (top). Now in Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 9680.

 

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski. 1957. Inventory number: 8763,

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J57f0502

 

Room E

According to Maiuri, also of a genteel character would have been the neighbouring room, finishing on the east side with an apsidal window.  But the presence of a crude baker’s kneading bin and some millstones, clearly revealed what was the last humble use for this room.  

See Maiuri A., 1958. Ercolano I Nuovi Scavi (1927-1958) Vol. 1. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, p. 454.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Room E, kneading bin, looking east to absidal window. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Room E, kneading bin, looking east to apsidal window.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail of kneading bin. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail of kneading bin. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail from kneading bin. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2006. Detail from kneading bin. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Looking west in room E. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Looking west in room E. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Detail from west wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. June 2005. Detail from west wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Room F

 

With a vaulted ceiling, a floor of fine black mosaic divided into squares by two white strips, to the square and small circular windows, the painted decoration was completely black (zoccolo and walls), and of simple elegant scheme with birds on the zoccolo, with metallic vases at the centre of the panels

 

A close up of a stone building

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Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. May 2004. Mosaic flooring in room F.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

A stone building

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Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room F, west wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

An old stone building

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Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room F, west wall.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

A picture containing building, wall, ground, indoor

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Ins. Or. II, 1ª, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room F, south wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.