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Herculaneum Ins. Or. II.8. Pistrinum di Sextus Patulcius Felix, Bakery.

Excavated 1932-41.

 

Maiuri wrote that this was a mill with bakery with four rooms, of which two opened onto the street. (perhaps there were two in 1936 when book was first written?) .

In the shop two mills, in the back-shop 25 bronze baking-pans of every size. In the glass case standing against the wall is exhibited the seal of Sex[ti] Patulci Felicis, who probably was the proprietor of the bakery).  (Also probably in 1936 when the book was written.)

In dark sooty premises in the interior are to be found the perfectly preserved oven and the place for preparing pastry, both of them with the sign of the phallic emblem to ward off the evil spirits who were a threat to good baking.

See Maiuri, Amedeo, (1977). Herculaneum. 7th English ed, of Guide books to the Museums Galleries and Monuments of Italy, No.53 (p.57).

 

According to Guidobaldi, this bakery belonged to the baker (miller) Sextus Patulcius Felix, known because of the bronze ring with seal found on the mezzanine. Found here was an open space in which the granary millstones were installed, consisting of a lower conical fixed part (meta) and a moveable upper part in the shape of an hour-glass (catillus), which would have been turned around by a beast of burden, usually an ass/donkey. At the rear of this space was a stable/stall, while on the left (north side) was the real bakery protected from the evil eye by two stucco phalluses placed at the entrance. Recovered during the course of the excavation was an entire series of bronze circular baking/pie dishes used for baking the tarts/cakes.

See Guidobaldi, M.P, 2009: Ercolano, guida agli scavi. Naples, Electa Napoli, (p.51-2).

 

Deiss wrote that apparently Sextus Patulcus Felix specialised in cakes, for he had 25 bronze baking pans of various sizes. When he escaped he left behind not only the pans hanging from the rack and in the oven, but considerable supplies of wheat and stacks of money. Relinquished too was a bronze statuette of a female nude – one of the shop’s treasures……. Over the oven door he placed two phalli, side by side to protect his baking from being spoiled by witchcraft. And in the dough room (the mixing bowls are on the shelf) he placed two more phalli in ceramic: a large phallus with the hind legs of an ass and its own phallus. Those guardian phalli are still on duty.

See Deiss, J.J. 1968. Herculaneum: a city returns to the sun. UK, The History Book Club, (p.104)

 

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Pistrinum of Sex. Patulcius Felix on east side of Cardo V. 
This bakery is thought to have belonged to Sextus Patulcius Felix, as a result of a bronze seal ring, found in an upper room.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Pistrinum of Sex. Patulcius Felix on east side of Cardo V. May 2010.

This bakery is thought to have belonged to Sextus Patulcius Felix, as a result of a bronze seal ring found in an upper room.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Entrance doorway, looking north-east.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Entrance doorway, looking north-east.

 

Ins. Orientalis II. 9 on left, and Ins. Or. II.8 in centre. September 2004. Looking north-east along façade. There would have been a wooden balcony, shown by square holes for support beams in wall, between the first and second floor.

Ins. Orientalis II.9 on left, and Ins. Or. II.8 in centre. September 2004.

Looking north-east along façade.

There would have been a wooden balcony, shown by square holes for support beams in wall, between the first and second floor.

 

Ins. Orientalis II. 9 on left, and Ins. Orientalis II.8 in centre. 1961.  Looking north-east along façade in Cardo V Superiore. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J61f0595

Ins. Orientalis II.9 on left, and Ins. Orientalis II.8 in centre. 1961.

Looking north-east along façade in Cardo V Superiore.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J61f0595

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Two steps from roadway to pavement in front of entrance doorway.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Two steps from roadway to pavement in front of entrance doorway.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Entrance doorway and upper floors.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Entrance doorway and upper floors.

 

Ins.Or.II.8, Herculaneum, September 2016. Looking east to entrance doorway.
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Or. II.8, Herculaneum, September 2016. Looking east to entrance doorway.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Entrance doorway.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Entrance doorway.

 

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Ins.Or. II.8, Herculaneum, October 2014. Looking towards mills in bakery. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins.Or.II.8, Herculaneum, September 2016. Detail of mills in bakery. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Or. II.8, Herculaneum, September 2016. Detail of mills in bakery. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins.Or.II.8, Herculaneum, July 2015. Detail of mills in bakery. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Or. II.8, Herculaneum, July 2015. Detail of mills in bakery. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Herculaneum. May 2010. Looking east from entrance doorway.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. May 2010. Looking east from entrance doorway.

 

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Herculaneum. May 2010. North side of mill-room.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. May 2010. North side of mill-room.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Doorway in north wall to bakery with oven.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Doorway in north wall to bakery with oven.

 

Ins.Or.II.8, Herculaneum, September 2016. Oven with two stucco phalli above doorway.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins.Or.II.8, Herculaneum, September 2016. Oven with two stucco phalli above doorway. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. 1961. Oven with two stucco phalli above doorway. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J61f0596

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. 1961. Oven with two stucco phalli above doorway.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J61f0596

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking north towards another doorway into a rear room.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking north towards another doorway into a rear room.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Oven with two stucco phalluses incorporated into roof.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Oven with two stucco phalli incorporated into roof of oven.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Oven.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Oven.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2016.  Looking towards north-east corner of mill-room. There are at least two upper floors visible on the north wall. 
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2016.

Looking towards north-east corner of mill-room. There are at least two upper floors visible on the north wall.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Herculaneum.October 2015. Looking towards north wall of mill-room with an upper floor, and two doorways.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Herculaneum.October 2015. Looking towards north wall of mill-room with an upper floor, and two doorways.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking towards north wall of mill-room with an upper floor, and two doorways.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.

Looking towards north wall of mill-room with an upper floor, and two doorways.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.  Recess/niche in room on mezzanine floor in upper north-east corner.  Above the recess is another doorway which would have been on the upper floor.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.

Recess/niche in room on mezzanine floor in upper north-east corner.

Above the recess is another doorway which would have been on the upper floor.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking towards south-east corner of mill-room. Note the “mezzanine floor” has been removed, see photo below.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking towards south-east corner of mill-room.

Note the “mezzanine floor” has been removed, see photo below.

 

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Herculaneum. May 2010. South side of bakery with two millstones.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. May 2010. South side of bakery with two millstones.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. May 2009. Looking towards south-east side of mill room, from entrance.  Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. May 2009. Looking towards south-east side of mill room, from entrance.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.  Small doorway in south wall leading to a room on the north side of the stairs at II.7. Above this is a doorway which would have been situated on the mezzanine level.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.

Small doorway in south wall leading to a room on the north side of the stairs at II.7.

Above this is a doorway which would have been situated on the mezzanine level.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.  Looking east from doorway in II.8, into a room on the north side of II.7.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.

Looking east from doorway in II.8, into a room on the north side of II.7.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.7, Herculaneum. September 2015. Floor of room on the north side of II.7.

Ins. Orientalis II.7, Herculaneum. September 2015. Floor of room on the north side of II.7.

 

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Herculaneum. May 2010. Looking east towards rear stable/stall.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. May 2010. Looking east towards rear stable/stall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Herculaneum.October 2015. Looking towards north-west area of stable/stall.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum.October 2015. Looking towards north-west area of stable/stall.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

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Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2016. North wall of stable/stall

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. North wall of stable/stall

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. North wall of stable/stall

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. East wall of stable/stall.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. East wall of stable/stall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. South wall of stable/stall

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. South wall of stable/stall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Herculaneum.October 2015. Looking west from stable/stall to mill room.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum.October 2015. Looking west from stable/stall to mill room. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.  Looking west from rear room, probably used as a stable for the animals that turned the mill-stones, towards the mill-room with an upper floor above.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.

Looking west from rear room, probably used as a stable for the animals that turned the mill-stones, towards the mill-room with an upper floor above.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Doorways from rear stable/stall to mill-room, looking west.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Doorways from rear stable/stall to mill-room, looking west.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking towards south wall of mill-room, from rear stable.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking towards south wall of mill-room, from rear stable.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Entrance doorway threshold.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Entrance doorway threshold.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015. Entrance doorway threshold, and modern drain cover.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. September 2015.

Entrance doorway threshold, and modern drain cover.

 

Ins. Orientalis II, 8, Herculaneum. May 2010. Drain during cleaning work.

Ins. Orientalis II.8, Herculaneum. May 2010. Drain during cleaning work.

 

Ins.Or.II. 9/8, Herculaneum. October 2015. Looking south-east along Cardo V. Superiore.  The doorway to Ins.Or.II.9 is on the right. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins.Or.II. 9/8, Herculaneum. October 2015. Looking south-east along Cardo V. Superiore.

The doorway to Ins.Or.II.9 is on the right. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.