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Herculaneum Ins. Or. II.10. Workshop of the gem-cutter.

Excavated 1936-37.

 

According to Maiuri, this was a shop without a counter, probably belonging to an artisan. In the closed room, a little loom and a small bench near to it; upon the bed elegantly veneered with the motive of meanders, the skeleton of a youth; standing against the wall a marble table with objects found in the excavation of the rooms of the ground and upper floor. As many gems were found in the back rooms, it has been supposed that this workshop belonged to a gemmarius.

See Maiuri, Amedeo, (1977). Herculaneum. 7th English ed, of Guide books to the Museums Galleries and Monuments of Italy, No.53 (p.57).

 

According to Guidobaldi, the workshop which opened at no.10, comprised of three rooms on the ground floor, a kitchen (d) the cubiculum (a) and a rear-room (b) reached by a corridor (c).

The kitchen with floor of cocciopesto with inserts, and a lararium niche in the north wall was clearly identifiable by the hearth, and by the latrine (h) placed in the south-west corner.  To the right of the lararium niche was a graffito, today lost, that showed the record of the acquisition of a tunic for 1 denarius and 7 asses. Certainly placed near to the small lararium would have been the small tufa altar found with the inscription Hercules and attributes of Minerva.

In the cubiculum (a) and lit by a window opening in the east wall, were found a bed with the skeleton of a youth.

The incised gems found in large amounts in varying places in the dwelling, were fine examples of excellent workmanship by the gemmarius

See Guidobaldi, M.P, 2009: Ercolano, guida agli scavi. Naples, Electa Napoli, (p.52, with plan).

 

Wallace-Hadrill wrote that “the valuable gems found were taken off to the Naples Museum, but that the diaries revealed that the rest of the house was a treasure trove, with far more objects than in any other unit in the block; numerous lamps, pots, bronze vessels, a strigil, glass perfume bottles, a bronze balance, an interesting little terracotta altar inscribed HERCULIS, a marble bust of Bacchus and an elegant marble portrait bust of a man with an Augustan hairstyle, with red paint in its hair. It is interesting to note that a substantial collection of gems was also found in a chest on the upper floor of a different flat. The discovery of further gems in the sewer raise the question of whether these too derive from the gem-cutter.”

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2011). Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd., (p.278).

 

Pagano and Prisciandaro list –

23 July 1936, found on an upper floor in a basket of straw, now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

NAP 155867, intaglio su granato: Poseidone (Pannuti 1983, 8)

NAP 155868, cammeo su agata: scena dionisiaca (Pannuti 1983, 43)

NAP 155871, cammeo in pasta vitrea: testa di fauno (Pannuti 1983, 49)

NAP 155866, intaglio su corniola: Tyche (Pannuti 1983, 79)

NAP 155869, cammeo inonice-sardonica: Leda (Pannuti 1983, 128)

NAP 155870, intaglio su corniola: eraclidi (Pannuti 1983, 147)

NAP 155872, intaglio su cristallo di rocca: tirso (Pannuti 1983, 338)

 

1 August 1936, found on the floor in Room no.2, now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

NAP 155875, intaglio su corniola: Demetra (Pannuti 1983, 75)

NAP 155874, intaglio su corniola: Nike (Pannuti 1983, 98)

NAP 155873, intaglio su pasta vitrea: busto di menade (Pannuti 1983, 55)

 

5 August 1936, found on the floor, now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

NAP 155878, intaglio su pasta vitrea: Tyche (Pannuti 1983, 83)

NAP 155877, intaglio su corniola: Achille seduto (Pannuti 1983, 153)

NAP 155876, intaglio su corniola: guerriero morente (Pannuti 1983, 154)

NAP 155879, intaglio su corniola: quattro animali (Pannuti 1983, 267)

 

6 August 1936, now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

NAP 155884, intaglio su corniola: Agatodemone (Pannuti 1983, 90)

NAP 155883, intaglio su pasta vitrea: Dioniso e Semele (?) (Pannuti 1983, 130)

NAP 155881, cammeo su pasta vitrea: busto virile (Pannuti 1983,181)

NAP 155882, intaglio su diaspro-agata: leone (Pannuti 1983 ,249)

NAP 155886, intaglio su ametista: oinochoe (Pannuti 1983, 340)

NAP 155885, intaglio su pasta vitrea: iscrizione (Pannuti 1983, 348)

See Pagano, M. and Prisciandaro, R., 2006. Studio sulle provenienze degli oggetti rinvenuti negli scavi borbonici del regno di Napoli. Naples: Nicola Longobardi. (p.232)

See Pannuti, U. (1983). Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli, Catalogo della collezione glittica. Roma, 1983. Vol. I.

 

Herculaneum Workshop of the    II, 10 Item 12 Cameo depiction of the profile of an elderly lady in typical Macedonian headgear Glass .jpg

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. Cameo depiction of the profile of an elderly lady in typical Macedonian headgear (left).

 

Herculaneum Workshop of the    II, 10 Items 13 and 14 - Gem with a depiction of a male figure .jpg

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. Gems with a depiction of a male figure.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, on left, Herculaneum, October 2014. Looking east from Cardo V Superiore.Ins.Or.II.9, is on the right. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Orientalis II.10, on left, Herculaneum, October 2014. Looking east from Cardo V Superiore. Ins.Or.II.9, is on the right.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking east from Cardo V Superiore.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking towards entrance doorway into the kitchen (d).

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum. January 2002. Looking east towards entrance façade.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. January 2002. Looking east towards entrance façade.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 10, on right, Herculaneum. January 2002. Looking east towards entrances with Ins.Or.II.11, on left. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, on right, Herculaneum. January 2002. Looking east towards entrances with Ins.Or.II.11, on left.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015.

Entrance doorway threshold, looking north.

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum. January 2002. North wall of shop room. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. January 2002. North wall of shop room.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum. January 2002. North wall of shop room. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. January 2002.  North wall of shop-room.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Latrine (h) against south wall in south-west corner of kitchen (d).

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Latrine (h) and south-west corner of kitchen (d).

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Doorway to cubiculum (a) in south-east corner of kitchen (d).

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking east in cubiculum (a) with window in east wall.  This is the room that a skeleton was found on a bed, according to the excavation diaries. Nowadays, the room is bare, and the items presumably locked away in the deposits, or sent to Naples Museum.
Wallace-Hadrill writing in his book shows a deep admiration for Maiuri and his aim of promoting Herculaneum as a “living museum”. However he does point out that Maiuri felt no qualms in dressing his “museum areas” on view to the publlc with items that told a good story, but were not necessarily found there. For example, in this house is the room of the so-called embroidery girl, the ricamatrice, whose teenage skeleton was found lying on the bed (according to Maiuri – the adolescent victim of who knows what cruel or anguishing abandonment): by her bed is her embroidery frame and a little inlaid stool, as well as a bronze candelabrum and a marble table. But careful examination of the actual excavation records for summer 1936 suggests that by the time, twenty years later, he was writing this up for publication, he had either lost track of the actual records or ceased to care, and was more interested in publishing the “open museum” he had so ingeniously constructed. One major fraud has been mentioned before (p.83). The little weaving girl, is alas, pure myth. The excavation diaries do indeed record a skeleton on the bed, but it is that of a young man. But this apart, there were no finds. The wooden stool came from the house opposite, the loom and candelabrum from heaven knows where. It looked great for the public.  See Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2011). Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd., (p.278)
On page 83 he wrote, in the case of the ‘weaving girl’ Maiuri’s passion for a good story evidently carried him away. As displayed to the public, the backroom of the shop contained the skeleton of a teenage girl lying on a couch. By her couch is a little loom, on which she was weaving before the eruption, a small stool with marquetry decoration in front of it for her to work from. A small marble table rests against the left-hand wall, and a bronze candelabrum provides illumination on the right. The excavation diaries tell a very different story. They report the bed and skeleton of a ‘young boy’ and otherwise ‘no finds’. Maiuri has carefully put together this composition, and the entire story of the weaving girl. Deeply touching, but not actually true.  See Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2011). Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd., (p.83)

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking east in cubiculum (a) with window in east wall.

This is the room that a skeleton was found on a bed, according to the excavation diaries.

Nowadays, the room is bare, and the items presumably locked away in the deposits, or sent to Naples Museum.

Wallace-Hadrill writing in his book shows a deep admiration for Maiuri and his aim of promoting Herculaneum as a “living museum” thereby encouraging tourists and visitors to Herculaneum. However, he does point out that Maiuri felt no qualms in dressing his “museum areas” on view to the public with items that told a good story, but were not necessarily actually found in their position.

“For example, in this house is the room of the so-called embroidery girl, the ricamatrice, whose teenage skeleton was found lying on the bed (according to Maiuri – the adolescent victim of who knows what cruel or anguishing abandonment): by her bed is her embroidery frame and a little inlaid stool, as well as a bronze candelabrum and a marble table. But careful examination of the actual excavation records for summer 1936 suggests that by the time, twenty years later, he was writing this up for publication, he had either lost track of the actual records or ceased to care and was more interested in publishing the “open museum” he had so ingeniously constructed. One major fraud has been mentioned before (p.83). The little weaving girl, is alas, pure myth. The excavation diaries do indeed record a skeleton on the bed, but it is that of a young man. But this apart, there were no finds. The wooden stool came from the house opposite, the loom and candelabrum from heaven knows where. It looked great for the public.”

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2011). Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd., (p.278)

On page 83 he wrote, “in the case of the ‘weaving girl’ Maiuri’s passion for a good story evidently carried him away. As displayed to the public, the backroom of the shop contained the skeleton of a teenage girl lying on a couch. By her couch is a little loom, on which she was weaving before the eruption, a small stool with marquetry decoration in front of it for her to work from. A small marble table rests against the left-hand wall, and a bronze candelabrum provides illumination on the right. The excavation diaries tell a very different story. They report the bed and skeleton of a ‘young boy’ and otherwise ‘no finds’. Maiuri has carefully put together this composition, and the entire story of the weaving girl. Deeply touching, but not actually true.”

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2011). Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd., (p.83)

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Lararium niche in north wall of kitchen.

Found to the right of the niche was a graffito, but which has been lost.

 

According to Cooley and Cooley, it read -

11 September, for a tunic: 1 denarius, 7 asses.   (CIL IV 10664)

 

This may record the price of purchasing, or perhaps of cleaning a tunic. The graffito was found low down on an interior wall of a shop.

See Cooley, A.E, and Cooley, M.G.L. (2014). Pompeii and Herculaneum, a sourcebook. Oxon, Routledge, (p.240 numbered as H28 Expenditure on a tunic, Herculaneum ins or II.10)

 

Also found nearby was an altar to Hercules.

Hercules (AE (1980) 250).

 

A tufa altar, 13 centimetres high, dedicated to Hercules was found in Ins. Or.II.10. It illustrated the presence of non-domestic gods in private space.

See Cooley, A.E, and Cooley, M.G.L. (2014). Pompeii and Herculaneum, a sourcebook. Oxon, Routledge, (p.150-51, numbered as E74).

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Detail of lararium niche.

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum. January 2002. Lararium niche in north wall. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. January 2002. Lararium niche in north wall.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Detail of hole in north wall, on west side of lararium niche.

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum. June 2005. East wall of shop-room
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. June 2005. East wall of shop-room

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking east along corridor (c ).

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking north.

Doorway in corridor (c ), leading to room in south-east corner of Ins.Or.II.11

 

An old stone building

Description generated with high confidence

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum.  January 2002.  Doorway in north wall of corridor (c ), in centre.

On the left is the doorway leading back to the kitchen/shop-room. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum. January 2002.  Doorway in north wall of corridor (c ), leading to room in south-east corner of Ins.Or.II.11
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. January 2002.  Doorway in north wall of corridor (c ), leading to room in south-east corner of Ins.Or.II.11

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015.

Looking north-east to doorway from room in Ins. Or. II.11

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking north-west to doorway from room in Ins. Or. II.11 towards shop-room.

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum, May 2005. West wall of rear room. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum, May 2005. West wall of rear room. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum. January 2002. Upper south wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. January 2002. Upper south wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum. May 2004. Looking towards upper south wall of rear room.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. May 2004. Looking towards upper south wall of rear room.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. South wall.
Two upper floors as shown by holes for support beams for flooring.

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. South wall.

Two upper floors as shown by holes for support beams for flooring.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. East wall of rear room (b).

 

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum, on left. December 2004. 
View of Ins. Or. II.10, 11 and 13 (two rooms on right), looking west towards rear across rectangular area on west side of Palaestra portico. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum, on left. December 2004.

View of Ins. Or. II.10, 11 and 13 (two rooms on right), looking west towards rear across rectangular area on west side of Palaestra portico.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015.

North wall of rear room (b), with holes for support beams for an upper floor, west end.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. North wall of rear room, east end.

 

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. December 2004. Small recess in north wall of rear room, east end.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. December 2004. Small recess in north wall of rear room, east end.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Small recess in north wall of rear room.

 

Ins Or II, 10, Herculaneum. May 2004. Looking west along upper north wall of rear room.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. May 2004. Looking west along upper north wall of rear room.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

A stone building

Description generated with high confidence

Ins Or II.10, Herculaneum. December 2004. Looking west along north wall of rear room. 

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.10, Herculaneum. September 2015. Looking west along corridor (c) towards kitchen (d).