HerculaneuminPictures

 

 




Herculaneum Ins. Or. II.4. Entrance to the large vestibule of the Palaestra, and the area at its rear.

Excavated 1933-54.

 

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Cardo V, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking south from near Ins. Or. II.4, on left.

Cardo V, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking south from near Ins. Or. II.4, on left.

 

Ins. Or. II.4 Herculaneum, July 2015. Looking east from end of Decumanus Inferiore, across Cardo V, towards entrance doorway.
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Or. II.4 Herculaneum, July 2015. Looking east from end of Decumanus Inferiore, across Cardo V, towards entrance doorway.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking east towards entrance to the Palestra. Looking east towards monumental entrance with two tufa columns into a wide vestibule, originally with a vaulted roof, decorated with red green and yellow coloured stars.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking east towards entrance to the Palaestra.

Looking east towards monumental entrance with two tufa columns into a wide vestibule, originally with a vaulted roof decorated with red green and yellow coloured stars.

According to Parslow, in July 1757 whilst excavating in this vicinity, Karl Weber had uncovered fragments of a marble plaque commemorating Vespasian’s restoration in AD 76 of a temple dedicated to the Mater Deum which had been damaged by the earthquake of AD 62, and from this date onwards Weber referred to this building as “the Temple of the Venus or Vespasian or the Mother of the Gods.” The vaulted ceiling of this room had collapsed along the entire north side, and in a tunnel made under it a white stucco ceiling was revealed which was painted with a blue and a yellow star pattern. The upper side of the vault still bore traces of a simple black and white mosaic that must have been the floor of a room above it. Weber made a detailed study of the painted vault and counted all 966 extant stars.

Weber’s plan of this building was fairly simple, the main room of the temple (it was never called the “cella”) with its smaller “atrium” and two outside columns occupied the central position facing onto the two streets directly in front of them.”

See Parslow, C. C. (1998). Rediscovering Antiquity, Cambridge Univ. Press, (p.134-143, and fig 35 - fig. 38).

According to Kraus, - “In 1757 an epigraph was turned up which stated that the Temple of the Magna Mater (the building itself has never been located) had been restored under Vespasian in 76”.

See Kraus T. and von Matt L., 1975. Pompeii and Herculaneum: Living cities of the dead. New York: Abrams. (p.119)

According to Wallace-Hadrill,

“Then there is the mysterious Temple of Mother of the Gods, Magna Mater, restored by the Emperor Vespasian in AD 76: the inscription plaque was found in the entrance to the Palaestra, with which it seems to have no connection.”

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2011). Herculaneum, Past and Future, U.K, London, Francis Lincoln Ltd, (p.196).

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum. Marble plaque with inscription commemorating the restoration of the Templum Matris Deum by Vespasian in AD 76.

Imp(erator) Caesar Vespasianus Aug(ustus) pontif(ex) max(imus)
trib(unicia) pot(estate) VII imp(erator) XVII p(ater) p(atriae) co(n)s(ul) VII design(atus) VIII
templum Matris deum terrae motu conlapsum restituit    [CIL X 1406]

According to Cooley and Cooley, this reads
Imperator Caesar Vespasian Augustus, supreme pontiff, holding tribunician power for the seventh time, hailed victorious commander 17 times, father of the fatherland, consul 7 times, designated consul for the eight time, restored the temple of the Mother of the Gods which had collapsed in an earthquake.
See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, C6, p. 41.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 3708.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum. Marble plaque with inscription commemorating the restoration of the Templum Matris Deum by Vespasian in AD 76.

 

Imp(erator) Caesar Vespasianus Aug(ustus) pontif(ex) max(imus)

trib(unicia) pot(estate) VII imp(erator) XVII p(ater) p(atriae) co(n)s(ul) VII design(atus) VIII

templum Matris deum terrae motu conlapsum restituit    [CIL X 1406]

 

According to Cooley and Cooley, this reads

Imperator Caesar Vespasian Augustus, supreme pontiff, holding tribunician power for the seventh time, hailed victorious commander 17 times, father of the fatherland, consul 7 times, designated consul for the eight time, restored the temple of the Mother of the Gods which had collapsed in an earthquake.

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, C6, p. 41.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 3708.

 

Ins.Or.II.4, Herculaneum, July 2015. Looking towards entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum, July 2015. Looking towards entrance doorway. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Entrance doorway.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Entrance doorway.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015. South side from entrance doorway.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. South side of vestibule from entrance doorway.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015.Looking east from entrance doorway.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015.

Looking east towards large entrance hall, from entrance doorway.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015. North side from entrance doorway.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. North side of vestibule from entrance doorway.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking east from vestibule into large entrance hall.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking east from vestibule into large entrance hall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum. Found 22nd February 1757 in the vestibule. 
Statuette of Venus holding her sandal.
Then statuette has arm and ankle bracelets of gold.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5133.
See Pagano, M. and Prisciandaro, R., 2006. Studio sulle provenienze degli oggetti rinvenuti negli scavi borbonici del regno di Napoli. Naples: Nicola Longobardi, p. 214.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum. Found 22nd February 1757 in the vestibule.

Statuette of Venus holding her sandal. The statuette has arm and ankle bracelets of gold.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5133.

See Pagano, M. and Prisciandaro, R., 2006. Studio sulle provenienze degli oggetti rinvenuti negli scavi borbonici del regno di Napoli. Naples: Nicola Longobardi, p. 214.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015. North wall of large entrance hall.
According to Deiss, this room would have had a black tessellated pavement with portions set in marble, white walls relieved by architectural motifs, and a decorated vaulted ceiling. The ceiling collapsed when the volcanic debris was removed, due to the Bourbon tunnellers criss-crossing the walls and vault so many times. Portions of the vault revealed that the eight-rayed stars in wine-red, olive green, and chrome yellow were painted on a background of pale blue.
See Deiss, J.J. (1968). Herculaneum: a city returns to the sun. U.K, London, The History Book Club, (p.123-4).

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. North wall of large entrance hall.

According to Deiss, this room would have had a black tessellated pavement with portions set in marble, white walls relieved by architectural motifs, and a decorated vaulted ceiling. The ceiling collapsed when the volcanic debris was removed, due to the Bourbon tunnellers criss-crossing the walls and vault so many times.

Portions of the vault revealed that the eight-rayed stars in wine-red, olive green, and chrome yellow were painted on a background of pale blue.

See Deiss, J.J. (1968). Herculaneum: a city returns to the sun. U.K, London, The History Book Club, (p.123-4).

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, October 2014. North wall of large entrance hall. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, October 2014. North wall of large entrance hall. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, October 2012. North wall of large entrance hall.
Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, October 2012. North wall of large entrance hall. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. South wall of large entrance hall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, June 2006. South-east corner and south wall of large entrance hall. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, June 2006. South-east corner and south wall of large entrance hall.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking east across large entrance hall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking south along west portico, from end of large entrance hall.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015.

Looking south along west portico, from east end of large entrance hall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, August 2013. Looking south-east across south end of west portico, towards the unexcavated. Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, August 2013.

Looking south-east across south end of west portico, towards the unexcavated.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, October 2012. Looking south-east across south end of west portico, towards the unexcavated.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, October 2012. Looking south-east across south end of west portico, towards the unexcavated.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, December 2004. Looking towards west wall and south-west corner of west portico.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, December 2004. Looking towards west wall and south-west corner of west portico.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, December 2004.
Looking towards remaining decoration on west wall at south end of west portico.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, December 2004.

Looking towards remaining decoration on west wall at south end of west portico.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, December 2004.
Looking towards detail of remaining decoration on west wall at south end of west portico.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, December 2004.

Looking towards detail of remaining decoration on west wall at south end of west portico.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, in centre, Herculaneum, 1957. Looking west from rear.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J57f0427

Ins. Orientalis II.4, in centre, Herculaneum, 1957. Looking west from rear. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J57f0427

 

Ins. Orientalis II,4, lower part of photo. 1957. Looking west from the rear. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details. J57f0424

Ins. Orientalis II.4, lower part of photo. 1957. Looking west from the rear. Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J57f0424

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, May 2006. Looking north along west portico, from south end.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, May 2006. Looking north along west portico, from south end.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north from east end of large entrance hall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, March 2008. Looking north across large terraced area from east end of large entrance hall.
Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, March 2008. Looking north across large terraced area from east end of large entrance hall.

Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, October 2014. Looking north along west portico, from east end of large entrance hall.  Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, October 2014. Looking north along west portico, from east end of large entrance hall.

Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, June 2005. 
Looking west across large terraced area to wall between two rooms on north side of entrance hall.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, June 2005.

Looking west across large terraced area to wall between two rooms on north side of entrance hall.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, December 2004. Looking west across large terraced area, to two rooms on north side of entrance hall.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, December 2004. Looking west across large terraced area, to two rooms on north side of entrance hall.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015.  Looking towards north wall of large room on north side of large entrance hall.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015.

Looking towards north wall of large vaulted room on north side of large entrance hall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Detail of decorated north wall.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Remains of vaulted ceiling.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Remains of vaulted ceiling.

 

Ins. Orientalis II 4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north to rear of Ins.Or. II, on left.

Ins. Orientalis II.4, Herculaneum, September 2015. Looking north to rear of Ins. Or. II, on left.

The decorated walls in the photos below, belong to the large room on the left, described as Room A.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. June 2006. South-east corner of the vestibule, in front of the room. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. June 2006. South-east corner of the vestibule, in front of the room.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Detail from south-east corner of the vestibule, in front of the room. 
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Detail from south-east corner of the vestibule, in front of the room.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Detail from south-east corner of the vestibule.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Detail from south-east corner of the vestibule.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, decoration on south wall, at east end. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, decoration on south wall, at east end. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room A, decoration on south wall, at west end. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room A, decoration on south wall, at west end. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, decoration on south wall, at west end. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, decoration on south wall, at west end.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, decoration on south wall at west end.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, decoration on south wall at west end.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room A, detail of decoration on south wall at west end.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room A, detail of decoration on south wall at west end.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room A, detail of decoration on south wall at west end.
Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. June 2006. Room A, detail of decoration on south wall at west end.

Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, decoration on west wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, decoration on west wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, north wall decoration. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, north wall decoration. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, north wall decoration. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, north wall decoration. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

Ins Or II, 4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, detail from decoration on north wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

Ins. Or. II.4, Herculaneum. December 2004. Room A, detail from decoration on north wall. Photo courtesy of Nicolas Monteix.

 

 

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