HerculaneuminPictures

 

 

 




Ercolano Teatro or Herculaneum theatre.

 

Plan

 

Herculaneum, July 2015. Entrance to ancient Theatre on Corso Resina. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
150730 60 E Teatro ingresso P1040059

Herculaneum Theatre, July 2015. Entrance to ancient Theatre on Corso Resina. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

A group of people walking down a narrow street

Description generated with very high confidence

Herculaneum, July 2009. Looking south along Vico di Mare. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Herculaneum, July 2015. Entrance to ancient Theatre. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
150730 60 E Teatro ingresso P1040060r

Herculaneum Theatre, July 2015. Entrance to ancient Theatre. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

 

Herculaneum, July 2015. Entrance to ancient Theatre. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
150730 60 E Teatro ingresso P1040059r

Herculaneum Theatre, July 2015. Entrance to ancient Theatre. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

According to Maiuri, “The entrance to the Theatre may be reached by walking up the populous and popular Vico a Mare to the Corso.

The upper entrance lies amidst the houses of modern Resina built over the cavea; an inscription of 1865 records the last improvements made upon it”.

(see Maiuri, p. 73)

 

Herculaneum Theatre, July 2015. Plaque on entrance to ancient Theatre. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.
“Ingresso al Teatro di Ercolano ampliato e renduto più agevole per comodo dei visitatori MDCCCLXV.”
Entrance to the enlarged Herculaneum Theatre and made easier for visitors' convenience 1865.

150730 60 E Teatro ingresso P1040059v3

Herculaneum Theatre, July 2015. Plaque on entrance to ancient Theatre. Photo courtesy of Michael Binns.

“Ingresso al Teatro di Ercolano ampliato e renduto più agevole per comodo dei visitatori MDCCCLXV.”

Entrance to the enlarged Herculaneum Theatre and made easier for visitors' convenience 1865.

 

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. The eighteenth-century access shaft to the theatre.
Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. The eighteenth-century access shaft to the theatre.

Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. The eighteenth-century access shaft to the theatre.
Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

“From the lower vestibule a flight of 72 steps cut into the tufa bank leads down to the upper part of the theatre (summa cavea), recognizable from the double flights of steps that descend to the great circular ambulacrum between the summa and the media cavea; the latter is traversable from one extremity to the other, where there are stairs leading down to the level of the orchestra”…….
See Maiuri, A, (1977). Herculaneum, (p.73)

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. The eighteenth-century access shaft to the theatre.

Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

“From the lower vestibule a flight of 72 steps cut into the tufa bank leads down to the upper part of the theatre (summa cavea), recognizable from the double flights of steps that descend to the great circular ambulacrum between the summa and the media cavea; the latter is traversable from one extremity to the other, where there are stairs leading down to the level of the orchestra”…….

See Maiuri, A, (1977). Herculaneum, (p.73)

 

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Tunnel with electricity. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.
According to Deiss – 
“Today, the Prince d’Elboeuf’s well and Alcubierre’s tunnels, crisscrossing the Theatre, remain much as they were when the explorations were finally abandoned. From them the present visitor derives the most vivid impressions of the conditions under which the Neapolitan cavamonti worked so deep underground. Mists and vapours slither like ghosts through the corridors; water and slime drip from the ceilings and walls; the air is dank, bone-chilling.
Even with electric lights the tunnels disappear abruptly into the mysterious sepulchral darkness of twenty centuries.”
Deiss, in his Author’s Note, makes a point of thanking the custodians, who were unfailingly polite and helpful – even on the hottest days, after closing hours, and especially on the harrowing occasion when all the lights shorted out in the damp Theatre tunnels ninety feet below the surface.”.
See Deiss, J.J. (1968. Herculaneum: a city returns to the sun. London, The history Book Club, (p. x, p.137).

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Tunnel with electricity. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

According to Deiss –

“Today, the Prince d’Elboeuf’s well and Alcubierre’s tunnels, crisscrossing the Theatre, remain much as they were when the explorations were finally abandoned. From them the present visitor derives the most vivid impressions of the conditions under which the Neapolitan cavamonti worked so deep underground. Mists and vapours slither like ghosts through the corridors; water and slime drip from the ceilings and walls; the air is dank, bone-chilling.

Even with electric lights the tunnels disappear abruptly into the mysterious sepulchral darkness of twenty centuries.”

Deiss, in his Author’s Note, makes a point of thanking the custodians, who were unfailingly polite and helpful – even on the hottest days, after closing hours, and especially on the harrowing occasion when all the lights shorted out in the damp Theatre tunnels ninety feet below the surface.”.

See Deiss, J.J. (1968. Herculaneum: a city returns to the sun. London, The history Book Club, (p. x, p.137).

 

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Cavea. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Cavea. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Cavea. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Cavea. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Central cavea of the theatre.
Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Central cavea of the theatre.

Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Early 1800s painting by Giacinto Gigante. “Veduta della parte centrale della cavea del teatro di Ercolano”.
See Fino, L., 1988. Ercolano e Pompei. Vedute neoclassiche e romantiche, Napoli, p. 136.

Herculaneum Theatre. Early 1800s painting by Giacinto Gigante. “Veduta della parte centrale della cavea del teatro di Ercolano”.

See Fino, L., 1988. Ercolano e Pompei. Vedute neoclassiche e romantiche, Napoli, p. 136.

 

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Central cavea of the theatre, see above painting by Gigante
Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Central cavea of the theatre, see above painting by Gigante

Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1827 picture of Excavation du Theatre d’ Herculaneum.
See Le Riche J. M., 1827. Vues des monumens antiques de Naples. Paris : Bruere, Ch. 2, pl. 8.

Herculaneum Theatre. 1827 picture of Excavation du Theatre d’ Herculaneum.

See Le Riche J. M., 1827. Vues des monumens antiques de Naples. Paris : Bruere, Ch. 2, pl. 8.

 

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Central cavea of the theatre, see above painting by Gigante
Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Central cavea of the theatre, see above painting by Gigante

Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Theatre, Herculaneum. 1815 painting by Louis Nicolas Lemasle “Figli di Murat visitano gli scavi di Ercolano”. 
Photo courtesy of ICCD. Licence CC BY-SA 4.0.
Now in Museo nazionale di Capodimonte. Inventory number OA 4720.

Theatre, Herculaneum. 1815 painting by Louis Nicolas Lemasle “Figli di Murat visitano gli scavi di Ercolano”.

Photo courtesy of ICCD. Licence CC BY-SA 4.0.

Now in Museo nazionale di Capodimonte. Inventory number OA 4720.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Pencil sketch by J.M.W. Turner of inside the Herculaneum theatre.
In 1819, very little of the site had been uncovered and the rough nature of Turner’s studies reflect the fact that they were drawn in poorly lit, subterranean surroundings.
Now in the Tate Gallery. Tate Creative Commons Licence CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported).

Herculaneum Theatre. Pencil sketch by J.M.W. Turner of inside the Herculaneum theatre.

In 1819, very little of the site had been uncovered and the rough nature of Turner’s studies reflect the fact that they were drawn in poorly lit, subterranean surroundings.

Now in the Tate Gallery. See Tate Creative Commons Licence CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0 (Unported).

See Tate: Turner sketches of theatre from 1819

 

“The orchestra now lies 26.60 metres below the level of the modern Corso Ercolano.

Before us is the front of the proscenium of the usual type, with round and square niches deprived of their decoration and minor sculptures.

At the two extremities of the proscenium, near the pilasters of the main entrances to the orchestra (parodoi), there remain the bases of two honorary statues (the statues either were never found or were removed during the first disordered plundering of d’Elboeuf)”.

See Maiuri, A, (1977). Herculaneum, (p.73).

 

(Definition of the proscenium, the proscenium was the stage area immediately in front of the scene building.

It also could be the row of columns at the front of the scene building, at first directly behind the circular orchestra, but later upon a stage.)

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Copy of inscription to M. Nonio M F Balbo, in situ underground.
M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo
pr(aetori) proco(n)s(uli)
Herculanenses   [CIL X 1427]

“One base with the above inscription testifies the public gratitude of the city to that Marcus Nonius Balbus, and of whom we possess the equestrian statue found together with others of the same family in another public edifice, the so-called Basilica.”
See Maiuri, A, (1977). Herculaneum, (p.74).

Herculaneum Theatre. Copy of inscription to M. Nonio M F Balbo, in situ underground.

M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo

pr(aetori) proco(n)s(uli)

Herculanenses   [CIL X 1427]

 

“One base with the above inscription testifies the public gratitude of the city to that Marcus Nonius Balbus, and of whom we possess the equestrian statue found together with others of the same family in another public edifice, the so-called Basilica.”

See Maiuri, A, (1977). Herculaneum, (p.74).

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1827. Painting by Giacinto Gigante “Parte del proscenio del Teatro di Ercolano”. 
See De Jorio A, 1827. Notizie su gli scavi di Ercolano, Tav IV.

Herculaneum Theatre. 1827. Painting by Giacinto Gigante “Parte del proscenio del Teatro di Ercolano”.

See De Jorio A, 1827. Notizie su gli scavi di Ercolano, Tav IV.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Copy of inscription to AP Claudio C F Pulchro, in situ underground.
Ap(pio) Claudio C(ai) f(ilio) Pulchro
co(n)s(uli) imp(eratori)
Herculanenses post mort(em)   [CIL X 1424]

“The other statue base with inscription, above, is dedicated to Appius Claudius Pulcher, who was consul in the year 38 B.C.”.
See Maiuri, A, (1977). Herculaneum, (p.74).

Corti wrote – “Finally, there was an enormous marble slab, about five feet high and fifteen feet long. This was laboriously moved until it could be wound up the well on a windlass, and when it was cleaned it was found to have great letters, almost a foot tall, let into it in metal. It was an inscription in Roman capitals, bearing the name of Appius Pulcher, son of Caius, who lived about 38BC., in the year when Caius Norbanus Flaccus was Roman consul. Pulcher was in correspondence with Cicero and succeeded him as governor of Sicily”.
See Corti, E.C.C. (1951). The Destruction and Resurrection of Pompeii and Herculaneum, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, (p.102)

Herculaneum Theatre. Copy of inscription to AP Claudio C F Pulchro, in situ underground.

Ap(pio) Claudio C(ai) f(ilio) Pulchro

co(n)s(uli) imp(eratori)

Herculanenses post mort(em)   [CIL X 1424]

 

“The other statue base with inscription, above, is dedicated to Appius Claudius Pulcher, who was consul in the year 38 B.C.”.

See Maiuri, A, (1977). Herculaneum, (p.74).

 

Corti wrote – “Finally, there was an enormous marble slab, about five feet high and fifteen feet long. This was laboriously moved until it could be wound up the well on a windlass, and when it was cleaned it was found to have great letters, almost a foot tall, let into it in metal. It was an inscription in Roman capitals, bearing the name of Appius Pulcher, son of Caius, who lived about 38BC., in the year when Caius Norbanus Flaccus was Roman consul. Pulcher was in correspondence with Cicero and succeeded him as governor of Sicily”.

See Corti, E.C.C. (1951). The Destruction and Resurrection of Pompeii and Herculaneum, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, (p.102)

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Visiting the remains of the Herculaneum Theatre, painting by G. Gigante.

Herculaneum Theatre. Visiting the remains of the Herculaneum Theatre, painting by G. Gigante.

Wikipedia describes

“In ancient Rome, the stage area in front of the scaenae frons (equivalent to the Greek skene) was known as the pulpitum, and the vertical front dropping from the stage to the orchestra floor, often in stone and decorated, as the proscenium, again meaning “in front of the skene”.

 

A close up of a stone building

Description generated with high confidence

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Proscenium and Pulpitum. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

“Upon ascending one of the little side-stairs which connect the orchestra with the pulpitum, there are still to be glimpsed the skeletal remains of the mural structure of what was once the magnificent architectonic façade of the scene (scaena).”

See Maiuri, p.74

(Definition of pulpitum, the stage for actors.)

 

A close up of a stone building

Description generated with high confidence

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Proscenium. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

A close up of a stone building

Description generated with high confidence

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Proscenium. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

A stone building

Description generated with very high confidence

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

A close up of a stone building

Description generated with high confidence

Theatre, Herculaneum, July 2009. Tunnel with electricity, and daylight at its end!

Photo courtesy of Sera Baker.

 

Ethel Ross Barker, wrote in 1908 –

“We enter the Royal Excavations at Portici, traverse some long modern corridors and finally passing out of the brilliant sunshine, we descend a hundred modern steps into an atmosphere growing even colder and damper. Our only light is from an ancient shaft overhead to the right.

At the foot of the steps we find ourselves in a low, narrow vaulted passage hewn out of the lava.

It describes about a quarter of a circle. Fragments of white marble, stained green with damp, cling to the naked walls, and here and there the eye dimly discerns, in the fitful glare of the torchlight, a line of a frieze, a delicate piece of cornice, or the acanthus leaves of a Corinthian pilaster.

This vaulted passage is the upper corridor of the Theatre, above the media cavea.

 

We then descend some ancient steps, which we find to be one of the seven flights dividing up the cavea, and on the right of the steps we see portions of the tiers of seats where the spectators sat, all of dull, yellowish-brown volcanic tufa, and the whole seems hewn out of the living rock. When we reach the bottom of the stairs we see fragments of the thick slabs of giallo antico still in position on the floor of the orchestra, as they were laid down twenty centuries ago. The swift feet of the dancers pass no more over its polished surface, but the marbles are still there, triumphant in their ancient beauty over time and earthquake and the rapacity of man. To the right of the orchestra, supported on a vault, a small portion of the tribunal can be seen, projecting out of the massy lava. The whole of the pulpitum, still covered with a few fragments of marble, and the two flights of four steps, for ascending from the orchestra to the stage, are complete. The entire length of the very large stage can be seen. All the niches and the arches of the proscenium exist but are robbed of their marbles.

 

Behind the stage is the dressing room for the actors, with a smaller room, apparently for the same purpose, and on the left of the stage is a fine arched doorway for the entrance. The pilasters still retain a portion of their stucco covering, painted red, and on the walls of the dressing room are fragments of colouring to imitate marble. On the right of the stage is the pedestal, with an inscription, that bore the fine statue of the elder Balbus robed in the toga, which is now in Naples Museum. On the left of the stage is a similar inscribed pedestal for an equestrian statue to Appius Pulcher. The statue no longer exists.

 

A very small portion of the lower part of the outside of the Theatre can be seen, with its tufa and brick walls still adorned with fragments of pilasters, coated in red stucco. In the portion adjoining the left of the stage there is a door for the entrance of the public.”

See, Barker, E. R. (1908). Herculaneum. London, Adam and Charles Black, (p.46-48).

 

 

Plan Herculaneum 1700s Theatre Tunnels

Herculaneum Theatre. 1754 plan by Bellicard showing original well hole in the centre that led to its discovery.

 

Plan%20Herculaneum%201747%20Theatre%20attributed%20to%20Rocco%20Joachim%20de%20Alcubierre%20Bull%20Arch%Herculaneum Theatre. 1747 Theatre plan attributed to Rocco Joachim de Alcubierre. See Bull. Arch. Italiano, July 1861.
20Italiano%20July%201861

Herculaneum Theatre. 1739 Theatre plan attributed to Rocco Joachim de Alcubierre.

According to Parslow, “The plan and cross section of the theatre was drawn by Alcubierre about 1739 but not engraved until March 20, 1747. The numbers and letters were keyed to a legend that was printed separately.

L marks the shaft used first by d’Elboeuf, while the dotted lines indicate his tunnels;

N is the later stairway giving access to the site;

Q is the niche in the exterior façade from which Alcubierre removed 3 togate statues;

20 is the tunnel heading in the direction of the Basilica.”

 

Vedi piano e spiegazione più grandi   Pianta

See larger plan and key    Plan

 

See Bullettino Archeologico Italiano, Anno Primo, num. 5, luglio 1861, pp. 34-5.

See Parslow C. C., 2011. Rediscovering Antiquity. Cambridge University Press, p. 61.

See Ruggiero M., 1885. Storia degli scavi di Ercolano ricomposta su' documenti superstiti. Napoli: Acc. Reale delle Scienze, Tav IV.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Sketch plan drawn in 1750-1 by Jerome-Charles Bellicard in his notebook, p.3. 
Now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA. 
See Metropolitan Museum Journal 25.

Plan%20Herculaneum%201750%20Theatre%20from%20Bellicard%20notebook%20p3

Herculaneum Theatre. Sketch plan drawn in 1750-1 by Jerome-Charles Bellicard in his notebook, p.3.

Now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.

See Metropolitan Museum Journal 25.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1785 Plan from St Non.
Saint Non, A., 1782. Voyage Pittoresque de Naples et de Sicile: Vol 1, Partie 2, n.29.

Herculaneum Theatre. 1785 Plan from St Non.

Saint Non, A., 1782. Voyage Pittoresque de Naples et de Sicile: Vol 1, Partie 2, n.29.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Old photograph by G. Sommer showing a model of the theatre.

Herculaneum Theatre. Old photograph by G. Sommer showing a model of the theatre.

 

360-degree views of Theatre

 

See Brian Donovan's 360 degree views of the theatre

 

Fresco from the theatre.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Found 16th February 1740. Painting of a man and a woman or two women with a writing tablet.
According to AdE, this showed two women both with pearl earrings and hair down to the shoulders.
The front woman was dressed in white and holds an open writing tablet in her left hand and a stylus in her right, which she was pointing towards her lips. 
The rear woman was dressed in iridescent green and has a yellow band on her head.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 9074. 
See Le Antichità di Ercolano esposte Tomo 3, Le Pitture Antiche di Ercolano 3, 1762, Tav 46, 239. No date.
See Pagano, M. and Prisciandaro, R., 2006. Studio sulle provenienze degli oggetti rinvenuti negli scavi borbonici del regno di Napoli. Naples: Nicola Longobardi, p. 184.

Herculaneum Theatre. Found 16th February 1740. Painting of a man and a woman or two women with a writing tablet.

According to AdE, this showed two women both with pearl earrings and hair down to the shoulders.

The front woman was dressed in white and holds an open writing tablet in her left hand and a stylus in her right, which she was pointing towards her lips.

The rear woman was dressed in iridescent green and has a yellow band on her head.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 9074.

See Le Antichità di Ercolano esposte Tomo 3, Le Pitture Antiche di Ercolano 3, 1762, Tav 46, 239. No date.

See Pagano, M. and Prisciandaro, R., 2006. Studio sulle provenienze degli oggetti rinvenuti negli scavi borbonici del regno di Napoli. Naples: Nicola Longobardi, p. 184.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Found 16th February 1740. Painting of two women with a writing tablet.
See Le Antichità di Ercolano esposte Tomo 3, Le Pitture Antiche di Ercolano 3, 1762, Tav 46, 239. No date.
Found in the Scavi di Portici.

Herculaneum Theatre. Found 16th February 1740. Painting of two women with a writing tablet.

See Le Antichità di Ercolano esposte Tomo 3, Le Pitture Antiche di Ercolano 3, 1762, Tav 46, 239. No date.

Found in the Scavi di Portici.

 

Statues which may have come from the Theatre

 

Many of the statue said to be from this theatre may in fact have come from the Basilica Noniana, the Augusteum or vice-versa.

According to Kraus,

“Just which statues adorned the Basilica is difficult to say, since in so many cases the findings were simply lumped together with those from the Theatre”.

“Likewise, unknown is the precise disposition of the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Nonius Balbus, the most respected and influential citizen of Herculaneum, and the full length figures of his family”.

See Kraus T. and von Matt L., 1975. Pompeii and Herculaneum: Living cities of the dead. New York: Abrams, (p.120).

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue known as the large Herculaneum woman type. Height 203cm.
One of three statues from the theatre, taken by D’Elboeuf and given to Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna.
© Skulpturensammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Ingrid Geske. Inventory number Hm 326.

In 1711 workers digging a well in the small town of Resina, Italy, found three mostly intact life-size marble statues of draped women. 
Heralding the discovery of ancient Herculaneum, the sculptures are known today as the Large and Small Herculaneum Women. 
When they were discovered, the Herculaneum Women were hoisted through a well shaft that led down to the remains of a Roman theatre buried 75 feet below the street level of modern Ercolano. 
They probably once decorated the stage's impressive double-tiered façade, along with other sculptures of mythological and historical figures.
In Roman cities, theatres were a common place for the display of honorific statues of patrons and benefactors of the community. 
The Herculaneum Women may thus have represented members of the local elite.

The Herculaneum Women were the first significant finds at ancient Herculaneum, and they are among the best preserved of all the sculptures found there. 
The Herculaneum Women are Roman versions of sculptural types deriving from Greek art. 
They have idealized facial features, wear elegant, enveloping drapery, and share the same distinctive hairstyle, the so-called melon coiffure, which became fashionable in Greece after 350 B.C., when the models for the Herculaneum Women were created. 

The Large Herculaneum Woman represents a matron and has part of her mantle pulled up over her head, signifying piety. 
The Small Herculaneum Woman depicts a younger woman pulling the end of her mantle up over her shoulder in a gesture of modesty. 
The third Herculaneum Woman was missing its head when it was found. 
Her portrait head, probably with individual features, was carved separately for insertion into the neck cavity.
These body types were widely used for portraits of Roman women, but the two types have rarely been found together.

See http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/herculaneum_women/
See http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/herculaneum_women/index.html

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue known as the large Herculaneum woman type. Height 203cm.

One of three statues from the theatre, taken by D’Elboeuf and given to Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna.

© Skulpturensammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Ingrid Geske. Inventory number Hm 326.

 

In 1711 workers digging a well in the small town of Resina, Italy, found three mostly intact life-size marble statues of draped women.

Heralding the discovery of ancient Herculaneum, the sculptures are known today as the Large and Small Herculaneum Women.

When they were discovered, the Herculaneum Women were hoisted through a well shaft that led down to the remains of a Roman theatre buried 75 feet below the street level of modern Ercolano.

They probably once decorated the stage's impressive double-tiered façade, along with other sculptures of mythological and historical figures.

In Roman cities, theatres were a common place for the display of honorific statues of patrons and benefactors of the community.

The Herculaneum Women may thus have represented members of the local elite.

 

The Herculaneum Women were the first significant finds at ancient Herculaneum, and they are among the best preserved of all the sculptures found there.
The Herculaneum Women are Roman versions of sculptural types deriving from Greek art.

They have idealized facial features, wear elegant, enveloping drapery, and share the same distinctive hairstyle, the so-called melon coiffure, which became fashionable in Greece after 350 B.C., when the models for the Herculaneum Women were created.


The Large Herculaneum Woman represents a matron and has part of her mantle pulled up over her head, signifying piety.

The Small Herculaneum Woman depicts a younger woman pulling the end of her mantle up over her shoulder in a gesture of modesty.

The third Herculaneum Woman was missing its head when it was found.

Her portrait head, probably with individual features, was carved separately for insertion into the neck cavity.

These body types were widely used for portraits of Roman women, but the two types have rarely been found together.

According to Vorster, the stylistic analysis of the Dresden statues and their consideration in the context of the other sculptural finds from the same site lead rather to the conclusion that the three statues must have come to the Herculaneum Theatre at different times. The statue of the small Herculaneum Woman, Hm 327, may be considered not just one of the oldest sculptures of the Herculaneum Theatre but also one of the earliest examples of a female honorific statue erected in a public place in Italy.


See http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/herculaneum_women/

See http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/herculaneum_women/index.html

See Sybel L. Von, 1888. Weltgeschichte der Kunst bis zur Erbauung der Sophienkirche, p. 254, fig. 207.

See Vorster C., in Daehner J., ed., 2007. The Herculaneum Women: History, Context, Identities, Getty Publications: Los Angeles, p. 83.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1734 drawing showing a Herculaneum woman statue (g) in the menagerie of Prince Eugene de Savoye.
Prince d'Elboeuf, whose workmen discovered the Herculaneum Women, presented the sculptures as a gift to Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna. 
The earliest illustrations of the Herculaneum Women, shown here, depict them among the exotic animals Eugene kept at his Belvedere Gardens.
After Eugene's death in 1736 Augustus III, elector of Saxony and King of Poland, purchased the statues to complement the royal antiquities collection in Dresden. 
Housed in the Albertinum since the end of the 19th century, the Herculaneum Women are centrepieces of the Dresden antiquities collection. 
See Kleiner, Salomon, 1734. Représentation Des Animaux de la Ménagerie de S. A. S. Monseigneur le Prince Eugene François de Savoye et de Piémont. Augsbourg: Wolff, p. 3.
Picture courtesy of Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Usable subject to licence CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Herculaneum Theatre. 1734 drawing showing a Herculaneum woman statue (g) in the menagerie of Prince Eugene de Savoye.

Prince d'Elboeuf, whose workmen discovered the Herculaneum Women, presented the sculptures as a gift to Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna.

The earliest illustrations of the Herculaneum Women, shown here, depict them among the exotic animals Eugene kept at his Belvedere Gardens.
After Eugene's death in 1736 Augustus III, elector of Saxony and King of Poland, purchased the statues to complement the royal antiquities collection in Dresden.

Housed in the Albertinum since the end of the 19th century, the Herculaneum Women are centrepieces of the Dresden antiquities collection.

See Kleiner, Salomon, 1734. Représentation Des Animaux de la Ménagerie de S. A. S. Monseigneur le Prince Eugene François de Savoye et de Piémont. Augsbourg: Wolff, p. 3.

Picture courtesy of Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Usable subject to licence CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue known as the small Herculaneum woman type. Height 179cm.
Second of three statues from the theatre, taken by D’Elboeuf and given to Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna.
© Skulpturensammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Ingrid Geske. Inventory number Hm 327.
According to Vorster, this statue may be one of the earliest examples of a female honorific statue erected in a public place in Italy.
See Vorster C., in Daehner J., ed., 2007. The Herculaneum Women: History, Context, Identities, Getty Publications: Los Angeles, p. 83.

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue known as the small Herculaneum woman type. Height 179cm.

Second of three statues from the theatre, taken by D’Elboeuf and given to Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna.

© Skulpturensammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Ingrid Geske. Inventory number Hm 327.

According to Vorster, this statue may be one of the earliest examples of a female honorific statue erected in a public place in Italy.

See Vorster C., in Daehner J., ed., 2007. The Herculaneum Women: History, Context, Identities, Getty Publications: Los Angeles, p. 83.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1734 drawing showing a small Herculaneum woman statue (i) in the menagerie of Prince Eugene de Savoye.
See Kleiner, Salomon, 1734. Représentation Des Animaux de la Ménagerie de S. A. S. Monseigneur le Prince Eugene François de Savoye et de Piémont. Augsbourg: Wolff, p. 7.
Picture courtesy of Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Usable subject to licence CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Herculaneum Theatre. 1734 drawing showing a small Herculaneum woman statue (i) in the menagerie of Prince Eugene de Savoye.

See Kleiner, Salomon, 1734. Représentation Des Animaux de la Ménagerie de S. A. S. Monseigneur le Prince Eugene François de Savoye et de Piémont. Augsbourg: Wolff, p. 7.

Picture courtesy of Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. Usable subject to licence CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue known as the small Herculaneum woman type. Height 180cm.
One of three statues from the theatre, taken by D’Elboeuf and given to Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna.
© Skulpturensammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Ingrid Geske. 
Inventory number Hm 328.
This third statue was without a head when found.
It shows how the statue type would have had a portrait head attached.
The head, probably with individual features, was carved separately for insertion into the neck cavity.

The Herculaneum Women are the most prevalent images of the draped female form in the classical world. 
Their elegant, enveloping drapery and composed stance represented feminine virtues of beauty, grace, and decorum in both Greek and Roman societies. 
More than 180 examples of the large statue type and over 160 of the small statue type are known, along with dozens of variants and reliefs on tombstones and sarcophagi.
The majority of the figures are combined with individualized portraits.

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue known as the small Herculaneum woman type. Height 180cm.

One of three statues from the theatre, taken by D’Elboeuf and given to Prince Eugene of Savoy in Vienna.

© Skulpturensammlung, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Ingrid Geske.

Inventory number Hm 328.

This third statue was without a head when found.

It shows how the statue type would have had a portrait head attached.

The head, probably with individual features, was carved separately for insertion into the neck cavity.

 

The Herculaneum Women are the most prevalent images of the draped female form in the classical world.

Their elegant, enveloping drapery and composed stance represented feminine virtues of beauty, grace, and decorum in both Greek and Roman societies.

More than 180 examples of the large statue type and over 160 of the small statue type are known, along with dozens of variants and reliefs on tombstones and sarcophagi.

The majority of the figures are combined with individualized portraits.

Herculaneum Theatre. 1783 engraving by F. Piranesi of the flank of the theatre.
According to Piranesi, D is the entrance to the orchestra and at E were three statues.
In the centre was one with the inscription ..CIRIAE A. M. F. ACARD MATRIS BALBI D. D.
To the right was a statue with the inscription M. NONIO BALBO PAT. D. D. D.
Under the other statue was the inscription M. NONIO M. F. BALBO PR. PRO. COS. ERCVLANENSES.
See Piranesi, F, 1783. Teatro di Ercolano, Tav. V Fig 1, and notes below.

Herculaneum Theatre. 1783 engraving by F. Piranesi of the flank of the theatre.

According to Piranesi, D is the entrance to the orchestra and at E were three statues.

In the centre was one with the inscription ..CIRIAE A. M. F. ACARD MATRIS BALBI D. D.

To the right was a statue with the inscription M. NONIO BALBO PAT. D. D. D.

Under the other statue was the inscription M. NONIO M. F. BALBO PR. PRO. COS. ERCVLANENSES.

See Piranesi, F, 1783. Teatro di Ercolano, Tav. V Fig 1, and notes below.

 

Herculaneum Theatre, 1975. Marble statue of Viciria, mother of Nonius Balbus, “found in the Basilica”.
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J75f0575
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum, inventory number 6168.

The inscription under the statue read
Viciriae A(uli) f(iliae) Archaid(i) / matri Balbi / d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1440]
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum, inventory number 6872.

According to Cooley the following inscription was found in the Basilica Noniana with the female statue –
“To Viciria Archais, daughter of Aulus, mother of Balbus, by decree of the town councillors.” (CIL X 1440)
See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, (p.190, F101).  

According to Piranesi it was found in the theatre.
See Piranesi, F, 1783. Teatro di Ercolano, Tav. V Fig. 1 and notes below.

Herculaneum Theatre, 1975. Marble statue of Viciria, mother of Nonius Balbus, “found in the Basilica”.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J75f0575

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum, inventory number 6168.

 

The inscription under the statue read

Viciriae A(uli) f(iliae) Archaid(i) / matri Balbi / d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1440]

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum, inventory number 6872.

 

According to Cooley the following inscription was found in the Basilica Noniana with the female statue –

“To Viciria Archais, daughter of Aulus, mother of Balbus, by decree of the town councillors.” (CIL X 1440)

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, (p.190, F101). 

 

According to Piranesi it was found in the theatre.

See Piranesi, F, 1783. Teatro di Ercolano, Tav. V Fig. 1 and notes below.

 

Herculaneum Theatre, 1976. Perhaps M. Nonius Balbus. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6246.
This statue is associated with the inscription cil x 1439.
M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo
Patri
d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1439]

Herculaneum Theatre, 1976. Perhaps M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6246.

This statue is associated with the inscription cil x 1439.

M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo

Patri

d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1439]

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue base inscription associated with statue 6246.
M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo / patri / d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1439]
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum, inventory number 6871.
Photo courtesy of Epigraphic Database Heidelberg (http://edh-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de). 
Use subject to licence CC BY-SA 4.0

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue base inscription associated with statue 6246.

M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo / patri / d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1439]

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum, inventory number 6871.

Photo courtesy of Epigraphic Database Heidelberg (http://edh-www.adw.uni-heidelberg.de).

Use subject to licence CC BY-SA 4.0

 

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6167.
This statue was associated with the base inscription CIL X, 1428.
M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo
pr(aetori) proco(n)s(uli)
d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1428]
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6873.

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6167.

This statue was associated with the base inscription CIL X, 1428.

M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) Balbo

pr(aetori) proco(n)s(uli)

d(ecreto) d(ecurionum)   [CIL X 1428]

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6873.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Equestrian statue of the younger M. Nonius Balbus found intact in 1746.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6104.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Equestrian statue of the younger M. Nonius Balbus found intact in 1746.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6104.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. September 2015. Reproduction equestrian statue of the younger M. Nonius Balbus at Palazzo Reale.
This cast was placed here recently as a reminder of where the original stood in the mid eighteenth century.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6104.
A copy of the original inscription plaque is attached to the front. When first found this identified the statues as M. Nonius Balbus.
M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio) 
Balbo, pr(aetori), pro co(n)s(uli), 
Herculanenses.   [CIL X 1426]
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 3731.

Herculaneum Theatre. September 2015. Reproduction equestrian statue of the younger M. Nonius Balbus at Palazzo Reale.

This cast was placed here recently as a reminder of where the original stood in the mid eighteenth century.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6104.

A copy of the original inscription plaque is attached to the front. When first found this identified the statues as M. Nonius Balbus.

M(arco) Nonio M(arci) f(ilio)
Balbo, pr(aetori), pro co(n)s(uli),
Herculanenses.
   [CIL X 1426]

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 3731.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Equestrian statue of the elder M. Nonius Balbus.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6211.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.
According to the information board in the Palazzo Reale at Portici in 2015, the statue was found in 1746 and was in pieces and headless. 
The sculpture was believed to depict Balbus the Younger’s father. 
Hence, during restoration, Canart made head for it after a portrait certainly showing Balbus senior, in compliance with the principles of Classicism, which called for full restoration of mutilated sculptures. 
Actually, the two statues are believed to portray the same individual, being honoured respectively, by the towns of Nuceria and Herculaneum.

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Equestrian statue of the elder M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6211.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

According to the information board in the Palazzo Reale at Portici in 2015, the statue was found in 1746 and was in pieces and headless.

The sculpture was believed to depict Balbus the Younger’s father.

Hence, during restoration, Canart made head for it after a portrait certainly showing Balbus senior, in compliance with the principles of Classicism, which called for full restoration of mutilated sculptures.

Actually, the two statues are believed to portray the same individual, being honoured respectively, by the towns of Nuceria and Herculaneum.

 

Herculaneum. 1782. Two statues of Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum.
This drawing, from St Non, shows the elder/father statue with a bearded head.
According to the information board in Palazzo Reale in 2015, this was inspired by the most famous equestrian statue of antiquity, the Marcus Aurelius in Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome, a purely graphical restoration giving a different interpretation from Canart’s.
See Saint Non J., 1782. Voyage Pittoresque ou Description Des Royaumes de Naples et de Sicile : Tome 1 Partie 2, Chap. VIII, p. 36.

Herculaneum. 1782. Two statues of Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum.

This drawing, from St Non, shows the elder/father statue with a bearded head.

According to the information board in Palazzo Reale in 2015, this was inspired by the most famous equestrian statue of antiquity, the Marcus Aurelius in Piazza del Campidoglio in Rome, a purely graphical restoration giving a different interpretation from Canart’s.

See Saint Non J., 1782. Voyage Pittoresque ou Description Des Royaumes de Naples et de Sicile : Tome 1 Partie 2, Chap. VIII, p. 36.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1978. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus, 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6211.
This statue is often identified as the father of M. Nonius Balbus.
The two statues on horseback may be of the same M. Nonius Balbus but portraying earlier and later stages in his life.
See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, (p.186-191, F94-105) 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J78f0441
According to Wallace-Hadrill, this statue is often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact was from outside the theatre.
See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

According to the information board in the Palazzo Reale at Portici in 2015, the two statues are believed to portray the same individual, being honoured respectively, by the towns of Nuceria and Herculaneum.

Herculaneum Theatre. 1978. Statue of M. Nonius Balbus,

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6211.

This statue is often identified as the father of M. Nonius Balbus.

The two statues on horseback may be of the same M. Nonius Balbus but portraying earlier and later stages in his life.

See Cooley, A. and M.G.L., 2014. Pompeii and Herculaneum: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, (p.186-191, F94-105)

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J78f0441

According to Wallace-Hadrill, this statue is often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact was from outside the theatre.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

 

According to the information board in the Palazzo Reale at Portici in 2015, the two statues are believed to portray the same individual, being honoured respectively, by the towns of Nuceria and Herculaneum.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1968. Statue of the elder Nonius Balbus, now in the Naples Museum. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f0839

According to Deiss, “On their handsome marble horses, the Proconsul and his son are dressed identically in thigh-long tunics, soft riding shoes, breastplates, swords in scabbards, cloaks thrown over the left shoulders and left arms. 
The left hands hold the reins. On the third finger of each left hand is a large signet ring. 
The right hands are raised aloft in gestures of imperial command. The Proconsul’s hairline is receding. 
The son’s abundant hair is cut short and combed forward in the Roman fashion. 
The Proconsul’s face conveys all the haughty authority of a high Roman official who is an overseas administrator. 
The son’s face conveys uncertainty, distaste for an assumed role, and resignation. 
The Proconsul’s tight lips are curt with self-assurance and executive drive. 
The son frowns, and the full lips almost tremble with petulance. 
If the sculpture has told the truth, here indeed was a son in severe conflict with the father or other members of the family.”
See Deiss, J.J. (1968). Herculaneum, a city returns to the sun. UK, The History Book Club, (p.143-4).

According to Wallace-Hadrill, these statues are often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact were from outside the theatre.
See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

Herculaneum Theatre. 1968. Statue of the elder Nonius Balbus, now in the Naples Museum.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f0839

 

According to Deiss, “On their handsome marble horses, the Proconsul and his son are dressed identically in thigh-long tunics, soft riding shoes, breastplates, swords in scabbards, cloaks thrown over the left shoulders and left arms.

The left hands hold the reins. On the third finger of each left hand is a large signet ring.

The right hands are raised aloft in gestures of imperial command. The Proconsul’s hairline is receding.

The son’s abundant hair is cut short and combed forward in the Roman fashion.

The Proconsul’s face conveys all the haughty authority of a high Roman official who is an overseas administrator.

The son’s face conveys uncertainty, distaste for an assumed role, and resignation.

The Proconsul’s tight lips are curt with self-assurance and executive drive.

The son frowns, and the full lips almost tremble with petulance.

If the sculpture has told the truth, here indeed was a son in severe conflict with the father or other members of the family.”

See Deiss, J.J. (1968). Herculaneum, a city returns to the sun. UK, The History Book Club, (p.143-4).

 

According to Wallace-Hadrill, these statues are often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact were from outside the theatre.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1978. Statue of younger Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J78f0437
According to Kraus, “The head of Balbus [the younger] is a modern copy made by the sculptor Angelo Brunelli (1740-1806) after the original was destroyed in 1799 by a cannonball fired by the revolutionaries attacking the royal villa and museum in Portici.”
See Kraus T. and von Matt L., 1975. Pompeii and Herculaneum: Living cities of the dead. New York: Abrams, (p.125).
According to Wallace-Hadrill, Marcus Nonius Balbus was one of the leading citizens and benefactors of Herculaneum. 
He became a praetor in Rome, and the governor (proconsul) of Crete and Cyrene. 
In the Basilica Noniana, his portrait in the toga of a citizen, is accompanied by that of his father, with the same name, his mother Viciria, probably his wife Volasennia, and possibly his daughters. 
The impression of his face was left in the tufa at the Theatre, from his statue in heroic nudity. 
We see statues of him together with his father, both on horseback from a public square outside the Theatre, with an inscription recalling his benefactions to the town.
Finally, his statue can be found on the terrace by the Suburban Baths, in the armour of a Roman commander.
See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.130-133 and p. 192).

Herculaneum Theatre. 1978. Statue of younger Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J78f0437

According to Kraus, “The head of Balbus [the younger] is a modern copy made by the sculptor Angelo Brunelli (1740-1806) after the original was destroyed in 1799 by a cannonball fired by the revolutionaries attacking the royal villa and museum in Portici.”

See Kraus T. and von Matt L., 1975. Pompeii and Herculaneum: Living cities of the dead. New York: Abrams, (p.125).

According to Wallace-Hadrill, Marcus Nonius Balbus was one of the leading citizens and benefactors of Herculaneum.

He became a praetor in Rome, and the governor (proconsul) of Crete and Cyrene.

In the Basilica Noniana, his portrait in the toga of a citizen, is accompanied by that of his father, with the same name, his mother Viciria, probably his wife Volasennia, and possibly his daughters.

The impression of his face was left in the tufa at the Theatre, from his statue in heroic nudity.

We see statues of him together with his father, both on horseback from a public square outside the Theatre, with an inscription recalling his benefactions to the town.

Finally, his statue can be found on the terrace by the Suburban Baths, in the armour of a Roman commander.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.130-133 and p. 192).

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1968. Statue of Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum.  
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f1413
According to Wallace-Hadrill, this statue is often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact was from outside the theatre.
See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

Herculaneum Theatre. 1968. Statue of Nonius Balbus, now in Naples Museum. 

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1413

According to Wallace-Hadrill, this statue is often thought of as being from the so-called Basilica but in fact was from outside the theatre.

See Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2011. Herculaneum, Past and Future. London, Frances Lincoln Ltd, (p.192).

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Heroic nude statue of M. Nonius Balbus.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6102.
Photo courtesy Sailko via Wikimedia Commons, licence CC BY-SA 3.0.

Herculaneum Theatre. Heroic nude statue of M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6102.

Photo courtesy Sailko via Wikimedia Commons, licence CC BY-SA 3.0.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Daughter of M. Nonius Balbus.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6248.

Herculaneum Theatre. Daughter of M. Nonius Balbus.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6248.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1975. Perhaps one of the daughters of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica. 
Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.   
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J75f0573
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6248.

Herculaneum Theatre. 1975. Perhaps one of the daughters of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica.

Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.  

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J75f0573

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6248.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1976. Perhaps one of the daughters of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6244.

Herculaneum Theatre. 1976. Perhaps one of the daughters of Nonius Balbus, found in the Basilica.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6244.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Old photo titled “From the statue found in the theatre of Herculaneum. Now in the Museo Nazionale Naples. The Sister of M. Nonius Balbus”.

Herculaneum Theatre. Old photo titled “From the statue found in the theatre of Herculaneum. Now in the Museo Nazionale Naples. The Sister of M. Nonius Balbus”.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue of Marcus Calatorius Quarto.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5597.

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue of Marcus Calatorius Quarto.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5597.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Statue of M. Calatorius Quarto. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5597.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Naples%20Museum%20Ferebee%20May%202010%20390

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Statue of M. Calatorius Quarto.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5597.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Herculaneum Theatre or Augusteum. Antonia Minore.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5599.

Herculaneum%20Theatre%20Antonia%20Minore

Herculaneum Theatre or Augusteum. Antonia Minore.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5599.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Statue of Antonia Minore. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5599.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Naples%20Museum%20Ferebee%20May%202010%20384

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Statue of Antonia Minore.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5599.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Detail of statue of Antonia Minore. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5599.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Naples%20Museum%20Ferebee%20May%202010%20385

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Detail of statue of Antonia Minore.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5599.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Detail of hand with ring on statue of Antonia Minore. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5599.
Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

Naples%20Museum%20Ferebee%20May%202010%20389

Herculaneum Theatre. May 2010. Detail of hand with ring on statue of Antonia Minore.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5599.

Photo courtesy of Buzz Ferebee.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in May 1739. Copy in the Palazzo Reale of the reconstructed horse from a quadriga.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4904.
According to the information board in the Palazzo Reale in 2015, the reconstructed horse is in fact a pastiche, a skilful assembly of fragments of four bronze horses which originally drew a carriage driven by an army leader. 
The remains of this very important monument – parts of horses, their reins, and the carriage with its ornaments -, which probably graced the western arch granting access to the “Basilica” in Herculaneum, were found at different times from May 1739 onwards. 
Unfortunately, they were brought to Naples where for many years they were left in a courtyard in the royal palace at the mercy of the weather, vandalism and thieves. 
Finally, the decision was taken to smelt part of them to make two large bas-reliefs with busts of the king and queen.  
Only many years later did Camillo Paderno make the proposal to use what remained to put together the so called Mazzocchi horse, named after the erudite author of the inscription on the high plinth the work stood on in the courtyard of the Museo Ercolanese.

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in May 1739. Copy in the Palazzo Reale of the reconstructed horse from a quadriga.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4904.

According to the information board in the Palazzo Reale in 2015, the reconstructed horse is in fact a pastiche, a skilful assembly of fragments of four bronze horses which originally drew a carriage driven by an army leader.

The remains of this very important monument – parts of horses, their reins, and the carriage with its ornaments -, which probably graced the western arch granting access to the “Basilica” in Herculaneum, were found at different times from May 1739 onwards.

Unfortunately, they were brought to Naples where for many years they were left in a courtyard in the royal palace at the mercy of the weather, vandalism and thieves.

Finally, the decision was taken to smelt part of them to make two large bas-reliefs with busts of the king and queen. 

Only many years later did Camillo Paderno make the proposal to use what remained to put together the so called Mazzocchi horse, named after the erudite author of the inscription on the high plinth the work stood on in the courtyard of the Museo Ercolanese.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in May 1739 in the excavations at Resina. 1771 etching of the so called Mazzocchi horse, with part of its plinth.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4904.
See Antichità di Ercolano: Tomo Sesto: Bronzi 2 – Statue, 1771, pl. LXVI.

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in May 1739 in the excavations at Resina. 1771 etching of the so called Mazzocchi horse, with part of its plinth.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4904.

See Antichità di Ercolano: Tomo Sesto: Bronzi 2 – Statue, 1771, pl. LXVI.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 1895. Reconstructed bronze horse from a quadriga.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4904.

Herculaneum Theatre. 1895. Reconstructed bronze horse from a quadriga.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4904.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Bronze horse head.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

Herculaneum Theatre. Bronze horse head.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. 2009. Bronze horse head.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 115390.

Herculaneum Theatre. 2009. Bronze horse head.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 115390.

 

Herculaneum Theatre, found 1739. Small bronze chariot attachment in the form of a horseman 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5497.



005497%20Small%20bronze%20chariot%20attachment%20in%20the%20form%20of%20a%20horseman%20Herculaneum%20Theatre%20found%201739

Herculaneum Theatre, found 1739. Small bronze chariot attachment in the form of a horseman

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5497.

 

Herculaneum Theatre, found 1739 onwards. Small bronze chariot attachments. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

Herculaneum Theatre, found 1739 onwards. Small bronze chariot attachments.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

 

Herculaneum Theatre, found 1739 onwards. Small statuettes from the parapet of the quadriga. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

Herculaneum Theatre, found 1739 onwards. Small statuettes from the parapet of the quadriga.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in 1761. Reproduction of bronze statuette of Alexander on horseback. 
This was found along with a riderless horse near the theatre.

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in 1761. Reproduction of bronze statuette of Alexander on horseback.

This was found along with a riderless horse near the theatre.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in 1761. Bronze statuette of Alexander on horseback. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4996.

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in 1761. Bronze statuette of Alexander on horseback.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4996.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in 1761. Bronze statuette of riderless horse found with statue of Alexander on horseback. 
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4894.

Herculaneum Theatre. Found in 1761. Bronze statuette of riderless horse found with statue of Alexander on horseback.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 4894.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue of Lucius Mammius Maximus freedman.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5591.

005591%20Herculaneum%20Theatre%20Statue%20of%20Lucius%20Mammius%20Maximus%20freedman

Herculaneum Theatre. Statue of Lucius Mammius Maximus freedman.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5591.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Agrippina Minor.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5612.

005612 Herculaneum Theatre Agrippina Minor

Herculaneum Theatre. Agrippina Minor.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5612.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Livia.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5589.

005589 Herculaneum Theatre Livia

Herculaneum Theatre. Livia.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5589.

 

Herculaneum Theatre, 1968.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.
Statue of a Magistrate. Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6234.
Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.
J68f1414

Herculaneum Theatre, 1968.  Photo by Stanley A. Jashemski.

Statue of a Magistrate. Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 6234.

Source: The Wilhelmina and Stanley A. Jashemski archive in the University of Maryland Library, Special Collections (See collection page) and made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License v.4. See Licence and use details.

J68f1414

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Tiberius.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5615.

Herculaneum Theatre. Tiberius.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum. Inventory number 5615.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Bronze seat found in theatre.
See Piranesi, F, 1783. Teatro di Ercolano, Tav. IX.

Herculaneum Theatre. Bronze seat found in theatre.

See Piranesi, F, 1783. Teatro di Ercolano, Tav. IX.

 

Herculaneum Theatre. Second bronze seat found in theatre. Only the feet differ from the other seat.
Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.
See Piranesi, F, 1783. Teatro di Ercolano, Tav. IX.

Herculaneum Theatre. Second bronze seat found in theatre. Only the feet differ from the other seat.

Now in Naples Archaeological Museum.

See Piranesi, F, 1783. Teatro di Ercolano, Tav. IX.

 

 

Plan